Gladstone Capital Corporation
GLADSTONE CAPITAL CORP (Form: 10-K, Received: 11/20/2013 06:01:41)

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, DC 20549

 

 

FORM 10-K

(Mark One)

x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES
EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the fiscal year ended September 30, 2013

OR

 

¨ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from              to             

Commission file number 814-00237

 

 

GLADSTONE CAPITAL CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Maryland   54-2040781
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
1521 Westbranch Drive, Suite 100
McLean, Virginia
  22102
(Address of principal executive offices)   (Zip Code)

(703) 287-5800

(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:

(Title of each Class)

 

(Name of each exchange on which registered)

Common Stock, $0.001 par value per share   NASDAQ Global Select Market
7.125% Series 2016 Term Preferred Stock, $0.001 par value per share   NASDAQ Global Select Market

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:

None

 

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    YES   ¨     NO   x

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    YES   ¨     NO   x

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    YES   x     NO   ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    YES   ¨     NO   ¨

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.   ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer” and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer   ¨    Accelerated filer   x
Non-accelerated filer   ¨   (Do no check if a smaller reporting company)    Smaller reporting company   ¨

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12 b-2 of the Exchange Act).    YES   ¨     NO   x .

The aggregate market value of the voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the Registrant on March 28, 2013, based on the closing price on that date of $9.20 on the NASDAQ Global Select Market, was $180,774,763. For the purposes of calculating this amount only, all directors and executive officers of the Registrant have been treated as affiliates. There were 21,000,160 shares of the Registrant’s common stock, $0.001 par value per share, outstanding as of November 18, 2013.

Documents Incorporated by Reference. Portions of the Registrant’s definitive proxy statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Regulation 14A in connection with the Registrant’s 2014 Annual Meeting of Stockholders, which will be filed subsequent to the date hereof, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K. Such proxy statement will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission not later than 120 days following the end of the registrant’s fiscal year ended September 30, 2013.

 

 

 


GLADSTONE CAPITAL CORPORATION

FORM 10-K FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED

SEPTEMBER 30, 2013

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

PART I   ITEM 1   

Business

     2   
  ITEM 1A   

Risk Factors

     18   
  ITEM 1B   

Unresolved Staff Comments

     36   
  ITEM 2   

Properties

     36   
  ITEM 3   

Legal Proceedings

     36   
  ITEM 4   

Mine Safety Disclosures

     36   
PART II   ITEM 5   

Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

     36   
  ITEM 6   

Selected Financial Data

     38   
  ITEM 7   

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

     40   
  ITEM 7A   

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

     68   
  ITEM 8   

Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

     70   
  ITEM 9   

Changes in and Disagreements With Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

     113   
  ITEM 9A   

Controls and Procedures

     113   
  ITEM 9B   

Other Information

     113   
PART III   ITEM 10   

Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

     113   
  ITEM 11   

Executive Compensation

     113   
  ITEM 12   

Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

     114   
  ITEM 13   

Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

     114   
  ITEM 14   

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

     114   
PART IV   ITEM 15   

Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedule

     114   
SIGNATURES           117   

 

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FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

All statements contained herein, other than historical facts, may constitute “forward-looking statements.” These statements may relate to, among other things, our future operating results, our business prospects and the prospects of our portfolio companies, actual and potential conflicts of interest with Gladstone Management Corporation and its affiliates, the use of borrowed money to finance our investments, the adequacy of our financing sources and working capital, and our ability to co-invest, among other factors. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “estimate,” “may,” “might,” “believe,” “will,” “provided,” “anticipate,” “future,” “could,” “growth,” “plan,” “intend,” “expect,” “should,” “would,” “if,” “seek,” “possible,” “potential,” “likely” or the negative of such terms or comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such factors include, among others: (1) further adverse changes in the economy and the capital markets; (2) risks associated with negotiation and consummation of pending and future transactions; (3) the loss of one or more of our executive officers, in particular David Gladstone or Terry Lee Brubaker; 4) changes in our investment objectives and strategy; (5) availability, terms and deployment of capital; (6) changes in our industry, interest rates, exchange rates or the general economy; (7) the degree and nature of our competition; (8) our ability to maintain our qualification as a RIC and as business development company; and (9) those factors described in the “Risk Factors” section of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. We caution readers not to place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements. Actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in our forward-looking statements and future results could differ materially from historical performance. We have based forward-looking statements on information available to us on the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Except as required by the federal securities laws, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Although we undertake no obligation to revise or update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, you are advised to consult any additional disclosures that we may make directly to you or through reports that we have filed or in the future may file with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K.

In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, or Annual Report, the “Company,” “we,” “us,” and “our” refer to Gladstone Capital Corporation and its wholly-owned subsidiaries unless the context otherwise indicates. Dollar amounts are in thousands unless otherwise indicated.

PART I

ITEM 1. BUSINESS

Overview

Organization

We were incorporated under the Maryland General Corporation Law on May 30, 2001, and completed our initial public offering on August 24, 2001. We are externally managed and operate as a closed-end, non-diversified management investment company and have elected to be treated as a business development company (“BDC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended ( the “1940 Act”). For federal income tax purposes, we have elected to be treated as a regulated investment company (“RIC”) under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). We currently continue to qualify as a RIC for federal income tax purposes and obtain favorable RIC tax treatment by meeting certain requirements, including minimum distribution requirements.

Our shares of common stock and term preferred stock are traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (“NASDAQ”) under the trading symbols “GLAD” and “GLADP,” respectively.

Investment Objectives and Strategy

We were established for the purpose of investing in debt and equity securities of established private businesses operating in the United States (“U.S.”). Our investment objectives are to: (1) achieve and grow current income by investing in debt securities of established businesses that we believe will provide stable earnings and cash flow to pay expenses, make principal and interest payments on our outstanding indebtedness and make distributions to stockholders that grow over time;

 

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and (2) provide our stockholders with long-term capital appreciation in the value of our assets by investing in equity securities of established businesses that we believe can grow over time to permit us to sell our equity investments for capital gains. To achieve our objectives, our investment strategy is to invest in several categories of debt and equity securities, with each investment generally ranging from $5 million to $30 million, although investment size may vary, depending upon our total assets or available capital at the time of investment. We aim to maintain a portfolio allocation of approximately 95.0% debt investments and 5.0% equity investments, at cost.

In general, our investments in debt securities have a term of no more than seven years, accrue interest at variable rates (based on the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”)) and, to a lesser extent, at fixed rates. We seek debt instruments that pay interest monthly or, at a minimum, quarterly, have a success fee or deferred interest provision and are primarily interest only with all principal and any accrued but unpaid interest due at maturity. Generally, success fees accrue at a set rate and are contractually due upon a change of control in the business. Some debt securities have deferred interest whereby some portion of the interest payment is added to the principal balance so that the interest is paid, together with the principal, at maturity. This form of deferred interest is often called paid-in-kind (“PIK”) interest. Typically, our equity investments take the form of preferred or common stock, limited liability company interests, or warrants or options to purchase the foregoing. Often, these equity investments occur in connection with our original investment, recapitalizing a business, or refinancing existing debt.

As of September 30, 2013, our portfolio consisted of loans to 47 companies located in 26 states in 19 different industries with an aggregate fair value of $256.9 million. Since our initial public offering in 2001 through September 30, 2013, we have invested in over 172 different companies, while making over 128 consecutive monthy or quarterly distributions to common stockholders. We expect that our target portfolio over time will primarily include the following four categories of investments in private U.S. companies:

 

    Senior Debt Securities: We seek to invest a portion of our assets in senior debt securities also known as senior loans, senior term loans, lines of credit and senior notes. Using its assets as collateral, the borrower typically uses senior debt to cover a substantial portion of the funding needs of the business. The senior debt security usually takes the form of first priority liens on the assets of the business. Senior debt securities may include our participation and investment in the syndicated loan market.

 

    Senior Subordinated Debt Securities: We seek to invest a portion of our assets in senior subordinated debt securities, also known as senior subordinated loans and senior subordinated notes. These senior subordinated debts also include second lien notes and may include participation and investment in syndicated second lien loans. Additionally, we may receive other yield enhancements, such as success fees, in connection with these senior subordinated debt securities.

 

    Junior Subordinated Debt Securities: We seek to invest a portion of our assets in junior subordinated debt securities, also known as subordinated loans, subordinated notes and mezzanine loans. These junior subordinated debts include second lien notes and unsecured loans. Additionally, we may receive other yield enhancements and warrants to buy common and preferred stock or limited liability interests in connection with these junior subordinated debt securities.

 

    Preferred and Common Equity/Equivalents: In some cases we will purchase equity securities which consist of preferred and common equity or limited liability company interests, or warrants or options to acquire such securities, and are in combination with our debt investment in a business. Additionally, we may receive equity investments derived from restructurings on some of our existing debt investments. In some cases, we will own a significant portion of the equity and in other cases we may have voting control of the businesses in which we invest.

Additionally, pursuant to the 1940 Act, we must maintain at least 70.0% of our total assets in qualifying assets, which generally include each of the investment types listed above. Therefore, the 1940 Act permits us to invest up to 30.0% of our assets in other non-qualifying assets. See “ Regulation as a BDC — Qualifying Assets ” for a discussion of the types of qualifying assets in which we may invest under Section 55(a) of the 1940 Act.

Investment Concentrations

Year over year, our investment concentration as a percentage of fair value and of cost has remained relatively unchanged. As of September 30, 2013, our portfolio allocation is approximately 94.4% debt investments and 5.6% equity investments, at cost. Our portfolio consists primarily of proprietary investments, however, we have and continue to invest in syndicated

 

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investments where we participate in a group of other lenders. As of September 30, 2013, we held 18 syndicated investments totaling $61.2 million at cost and $60.6 million at fair value, or 18.4% and 23.6%, respectively, of our total aggregate portfolio. We held 20 syndicated investments totaling $77.8 million at cost and $78.2 million at fair value, or 21.3% and 28.5%, respectively, of our total aggregate portfolio as of September 30, 2012.

The following table outlines our investments by security type at September 30, 2013 and 2012:

 

     September 30, 2013     September 30, 2012  
     Cost     Fair Value     Cost     Fair Value  

Senior debt

   $ 184,146         55.4   $ 118,134         46.0   $ 235,158         64.4   $ 164,345         60.0

Senior subordinated debt

     129,013         38.8        126,675         49.3        118,469         32.5        100,149         36.5   

Junior subordinated debt

     494         0.2        561         0.2        428         0.1        498         0.2   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total debt investments

     313,653         94.4        245,370         95.5        354,055         97.0        264,992         96.7   

Preferred equity

     12,268         3.7        4,626         1.8        6,719         1.8        1,103         0.4   

Common equity/equivalents

     6,345         1.9        6,882         2.7        4,247         1.2        7,865         2.9   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total equity investments

     18,613         5.6        11,508         4.5        10,966         3.0        8,968         3.3   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total Investments

   $ 332,266         100.0   $ 256,878         100.0   $ 365,021         100.0   $ 273,960         100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Our five largest investments at fair value as of September 30, 2013, totaled $96.0 million, or 37.4% of our total aggregate portfolio, as compared to our five largest investments at fair value as of September 30, 2012, totaling $91.8 million, or 33.5% of our total aggregate portfolio.

Our investments at fair value consisted of the following industry classifications at September 30, 2013 and 2012:

 

     September 30, 2013     September 30, 2012  

Industry Classification

   Fair Value      Percentage
of Total
Investments
    Fair Value      Percentage
of Total
Investments
 

Healthcare, education and childcare

   $ 45,339         17.7   $ 32,867         12.0

Electronics

     33,711         13.1        42,111         15.4   

Personal and non-durable consumer products

     29,032         11.3        8,399         3.1   

Printing and publishing

     22,224         8.7        12,760         4.6   

Mining, steel, iron and non-precious metals

     17,733         6.9        31,590         11.5   

Broadcast and entertainment

     15,534         6.0        25,505         9.3   

Oil and gas

     15,174         5.9        15,386         5.6   

Cargo Transportation

     12,984         5.1        —           —     

Aerospace and defense

     11,730         4.6        16,597         6.0   

Automobile

     9,701         3.8        12,168         4.4   

Textiles and leather

     8,476         3.3        9,776         3.6   

Beverage, food and tobacco

     7,038         2.7        7,258         2.6   

Machinery

     6,425         2.5        7,618         2.8   

Buildings and real estate

     6,392         2.5        5,920         2.2   

Finance

     4,489         1.7        —           —     

Diversified/conglomerate manufacturing

     4,482         1.7        6,824         2.5   

Leisure, amusement, motion pictures and entertainment

     2,756         1.1        5,380         2.0   

Home and office furnishing, housewares and durable consumer goods

     2,651         1.0        3,357         1.2   

Personal, food and miscellaneous services

     1,007         0.4        7,354         2.7   

Retail store

     —           —          19,360         7.1   

Other, < 1.0%

     —           —          3,730         1.4   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total Investments

   $ 256,878         100.0   $ 273,960         100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

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Our investments at fair value were included in the following U.S. geographic regions at September 30, 2013 and 2012:

 

     September 30, 2013     September 30, 2012  

Geographic Region

   Fair Value      Percentage of
Total
Investments
    Fair Value      Percentage of
Total
Investments
 

Midwest

   $ 118,570         46.2   $ 127,179         46.4

South

     68,669         26.7        62,677         22.9   

West

     61,737         24.0        66,268         24.2   

Northeast

     7,902         3.1        9,836         3.6   

Outside continental U.S.

     —           —          8,000         2.9   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total Investments

   $ 256,878         100.0   $ 273,960         100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

The geographic region indicates the location of the headquarters of our portfolio companies. A portfolio company may have a number of other business locations in other geographic regions.

Investment Adviser and Administrator

Gladstone Management Corporation (the “Adviser”) is our affiliated investment adviser and a privately-held company led by a management team that has extensive experience in our lines of business. Another of our and the Adviser’s affiliates, a privately-held company, Gladstone Administration, LLC (the “Administrator”), employs, among others, our chief financial officer, treasurer, chief compliance officer, internal legal counsel and secretary and their respective staffs. Excluding our chief financial officer and treasurer, all of our executive officers serve as directors or executive officers, or both, of the following of our affiliates: Gladstone Commercial Corporation (“Gladstone Commercial”), a publicly traded real estate investment trust; Gladstone Investment Corporation (“Gladstone Investment”), a publicly traded BDC and RIC; Gladstone Land Corporation (“Gladstone Land”), a publicly traded real estate company that invests in farmland and farm related property; the Adviser; and the Administrator. Our treasurer is also the chief financial officer and treasurer of Gladstone Investment. David Gladstone, our chairman, chief executive officer and president, also serves on the board of managers of our affiliate, Gladstone Securities, LLC (“Gladstone Securities”), a privately-held broker-dealer registered with the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) and insured by the Securities Investor Protection Corporation.

The Adviser and Administrator also provide investment advisory and administrative services, respectively, to our affiliates, including, but not limited to: Gladstone Commercial; Gladstone Investment; and Gladstone Land. In the future, the Adviser and Administrator may provide investment advisory and administrative services, respectively, to other funds and companies, both public and private.

We have been externally managed by the Adviser pursuant to an investment advisory and management agreement since October 1, 2004. The investment advisory and management agreement originally included administrative services; however, it was amended and restated on October 1, 2006 and at that time we entered into an administration agreement with the Administrator to provide such services. The Adviser was organized as a corporation under the laws of the State of Delaware on July 2, 2002, and is a registered investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended. The Administrator was organized as a limited liability company under the laws of the State of Delaware on March 18, 2005. The Adviser and Administrator are headquartered in McLean, Virginia, a suburb of Washington, D.C. The Adviser also has offices in several other states.

Investment Process

Overview of Investment and Approval Process

To originate investments, the Adviser’s investment professionals use an extensive referral network comprised primarily of private equity sponsors, venture capitalists, leveraged buyout funds, investment bankers, attorneys, accountants, commercial bankers and business brokers. The Adviser’s investment professionals review information received from these and other sources in search of potential financing opportunities. If a potential opportunity matches our investment objectives, the investment professionals will seek an initial screening of the opportunity with our chairman, chief executive officer and president, Mr. Gladstone, to authorize the submission of an indication of interest (“IOI”) to the prospective portfolio company. If the prospective portfolio company passes this initial screening and the IOI is accepted by the prospective company, the investment professionals will seek approval to issue a letter of intent (“LOI”) from the Adviser’s investment committee, which is composed of Mr. Gladstone and Terry Lee Brubaker (our vice chairman and chief operating officer), to the prospective company. If this LOI is issued, then the Adviser and Gladstone Securities (our “Due Diligence Team”) will

 

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conduct a due diligence investigation and create a detailed profile summarizing the prospective portfolio company’s historical financial statements, industry, competitive position and management team and analyzing its conformity to our general investment criteria. The investment professionals then present this profile to the Adviser’s investment committee, which must approve each investment. Further, each investment is available for review by the members of our board of directors (our “Board of Directors”), a majority of whom are not “interested persons” as defined in Section 2(a)(19) of the 1940 Act.

Prospective Portfolio Company Characteristics

We have identified certain characteristics that we believe are important in identifying and investing in prospective portfolio companies. The criteria listed below provide general guidelines for our investment decisions, although not all of these criteria may be met by each portfolio company.

 

    Value-and-Income Orientation and Positive Cash Flow. Our investment philosophy places a premium on fundamental analysis from an investor’s perspective and has a distinct value-and-income orientation. In seeking value, we focus on established companies in which we can invest at relatively low multiples of earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”), and that have positive operating cash flow at the time of investment. In seeking income, we typically invest in companies that generate relatively stable to growing sales and cash flow to provide some assurance that they will be able to service their debt. Typically, we do not expect to invest in start-up companies or companies with what we believe to be speculative business plans.

 

    Experienced Management. We generally require that the businesses in which we invest have experienced management teams. We also require the businesses to have in place proper incentives to induce management to succeed and act in concert with our interests as investors, including having significant equity or other interests in the financial performance of their companies.

 

    Strong Competitive Position in an Industry . We seek to invest in businesses that have developed strong market positions within their respective markets and that we believe are well-positioned to capitalize on growth opportunities. We seek businesses that demonstrate significant competitive advantages versus their competitors, which we believe will help to protect their market positions and profitability.

 

    Liquidation Value of Assets . The projected liquidation value of the assets, if any, is an important factor in our investment analysis in collateralizing our debt securities.

Extensive Due Diligence

Our Due Diligence Team conducts what we believe are extensive due diligence investigations of our prospective portfolio companies and investment opportunities. The due diligence investigation may begin with a review of publicly available information followed by in depth business analysis, including, but not limited to, some or all of the following:

 

    a review of the prospective portfolio company’s historical and projected financial information, including a quality of earnings analysis;

 

    visits to the prospective portfolio company’s business site(s);

 

    interviews with the prospective portfolio company’s management, employees, customers and vendors;

 

    review of loan documents and material contracts;

 

    background checks and a management capabilities assessment on the prospective portfolio company’s management team; and

 

    research on the prospective portfolio company’s products, services or particular industry and its competitive position therein.

Upon completion of a due diligence investigation and a decision to proceed with an investment, the Adviser’s investment professionals who have primary responsibility for the investment present the investment opportunity to the Adviser’s investment committee. The investment committee then determines whether to pursue the potential investment. Additional due diligence of a potential investment may be conducted on our behalf by attorneys and independent accountants, as well as other outside advisers, prior to the closing of the investment, as appropriate.

 

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We also rely on the long-term relationships that the Adviser’s investment professionals have with venture capitalists, leveraged buyout funds, investment bankers, commercial bankers, private equity sponsors, and business brokers. In addition, the extensive direct experiences of our executive officers and managing directors in the operations of and providing debt and equity capital to small and medium-sized private businesses plays a significant role in our investment evaluation and assessment of risk.

Investment Structure

Once the Adviser has determined that an investment meets our standards and investment criteria, the Adviser works with the management of that company and other capital providers to structure the transaction in a way that we believe will provide us with the greatest opportunity to maximize our return on the investment, while providing appropriate incentives to management of the company. As discussed above, the capital classes through which we typically structure a deal include senior debt, senior subordinated debt, junior subordinated debt, and preferred and common equity or equivalents. Through its risk management process, the Adviser seeks to limit the downside risk of our investments by:

 

    making investments with an expected total return (including both interest and potential equity appreciation) that it believes compensates us for the credit risk of the investment;

 

    seeking collateral or superior positions in the portfolio company’s capital structure where possible;

 

    incorporating put rights and call protection into the investment structure where possible;

 

    negotiating covenants in connection with our investments that afford our portfolio companies as much flexibility as possible in managing their businesses, consistent with preserving our capital; and

 

    holding board seats or securing board observation rights at the portfolio company.

We expect to hold most of our investments in senior debt and senior and junior subordinated debt until maturity or repayment, but may sell our investments (including our equity investments) earlier if a liquidity event takes place, such as the sale or recapitalization of a portfolio company or, in the case of an equity investment in a company, its initial public offering. Occasionally, we may sell some or all of our investment interests in a portfolio company to a third party, such as an existing investor in the portfolio company, in a privately negotiated transaction.

Hedging Strategies

We may use interest rate risk management techniques from time to time to limit our exposure to interest rate fluctuations. Such techniques may include various interest rate hedging activities to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act. Pursuant to our revolving line of credit, we have agreed to enter into interest rate cap agreements in connection with the borrowings that we make under our revolving line of credit. Refer to “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Liquidity and Capital Resources — Revolving Credit Facility” for more discussion on our revolving line of credit and our interest rate cap agreement. We currently hold one interest rate cap agreement, which is not designated as a hedge for accounting purposes.

Competitive Advantages

A large number of entities compete with us and make the types of investments that we seek to make in small and medium-sized privately-owned businesses. Such competitors include private equity funds, leveraged buyout funds, other BDCs, venture capital funds, investment banks and other equity and non-equity based investment funds, and other financing sources, including traditional financial services companies such as commercial banks. Many of our competitors are substantially larger than we are and have considerably greater funding sources that are not available to us. In addition, certain of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments, which could allow them to consider a wider variety of investments, establish more relationships and build their market shares. Furthermore, many of these competitors are not subject to the regulatory restrictions that the 1940 Act imposes on us as a BDC. However, we believe that we have the following competitive advantages over other providers of financing to small and medium-sized businesses.

 

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Management Expertise

Mr. Gladstone, our chairman and chief executive officer, is also the chairman and chief executive officer of the Adviser and its affiliated companies, other than Gladstone Securities, (the “Gladstone Companies”), and has been involved in all aspects of the Gladstone Companies’ investment activities, including serving as a member of the Adviser’s investment committee. Mr. Gladstone, our chairman, chief executive officer and president, has extensive experience in private equity investing in middle market companies. Mr. Brubaker is our vice chairman and chief operating officer, has substantial experience in acquisitions and operations of companies. Messrs. Gladstone and Brubaker also have principal management responsibility for the Adviser as its executive officers. These two individuals dedicate a significant portion of their time to managing our investment portfolio. Our senior management has extensive experience providing capital to small and medium-sized companies and has worked together at the Gladstone Companies for more than ten years. In addition, we have access to the resources and expertise of the Adviser’s investment professionals and support staff who possess a broad range of transactional, financial, managerial and investment skills.

Increased Access to Investment Opportunities Developed Through Proprietary Research Capability and an Extensive Network of Contacts

The Adviser seeks to identify potential investments through active origination and due diligence and through its dialogue with numerous management teams, members of the financial community and potential corporate partners with whom the Adviser’s investment professionals have long-term relationships. We believe that the Adviser’s investment professionals have developed a broad network of contacts within the investment, commercial banking, private equity and investment management communities, and that their reputation in investment management enables us to identify well-positioned prospective portfolio companies, which provide attractive investment opportunities. Additionally, the Adviser expects to generate information from its professionals’ network of accountants, consultants, lawyers and management teams of portfolio companies and other companies.

Disciplined, Value and Income-Oriented Investment Philosophy with a Focus on Preservation of Capital

In making its investment decisions, the Adviser focuses on the risk and reward profile of each prospective portfolio company, seeking to minimize the risk of capital loss without foregoing the potential for capital appreciation. We expect the Adviser to use the same value and income-oriented investment philosophy that its professionals use in the management of the other Gladstone Companies and to commit resources to management of downside exposure. The Adviser’s approach seeks to reduce our risk in investments by using some or all of the following approaches:

 

    focusing on companies with good market positions and cash flow;

 

    investing in businesses with experienced and established management teams;

 

    engaging in extensive due diligence from the perspective of a long-term investor;

 

    investing at low price-to-cash flow multiples; and

 

    adopting flexible transaction structures by drawing on the experience of the investment professionals of the Adviser and its affiliates.

Longer Investment Horizon

Unlike private equity and venture capital funds that are typically organized as finite-life partnerships, we are not subject to standard periodic capital return requirements. The partnership agreements of most private equity and venture capital funds typically provide that these funds may only invest investors’ capital once and must return all capital and realized gains to investors within a finite time period, often seven to ten years. These provisions often force private equity and venture capital funds to seek returns on their investments by causing their portfolio companies to pursue mergers, public equity offerings, or other liquidity events more quickly than might otherwise be optimal or desirable, potentially resulting in a lower overall return to investors and/or an adverse impact on their portfolio companies. In contracst, we are a corporation of perpetual duration and are exchange-traded. We believe that our flexibility to make investments with a long-term view and without the capital return requirements of traditional private investment vehicles provides us with the opportunity to achieve greater long-term returns on invested capital.

 

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Flexible Transaction Structuring

We believe our management team’s broad expertise and its ability to draw upon many years of combined experience enables the Adviser to identify, assess, and structure investments successfully across all levels of a company’s capital structure and manage potential risk and return at all stages of the economic cycle. We are not subject to many of the regulatory limitations that govern traditional lending institutions, such as banks. As a result, we are flexible in selecting and structuring investments, adjusting investment criteria and transaction structures and, in some cases, the types of securities in which we invest. We believe that this approach enables the Adviser to identify attractive investment opportunities that will continue to generate current income and capital gain potential throughout the economic cycle, including during turbulent periods in the capital markets. One example of our flexibility is our ability to exchange our publicly traded stock for the stock of an acquisition target in a tax-free reorganization under the Code. After completing an acquisition in such an exchange, we can restructure the capital of the small company to include senior and subordinated debt.

Leverage

For the purpose of making investments and taking advantage of favorable interest rates, we may issue senior securities up to the maximum amount permitted by the 1940 Act. The 1940 Act currently permits us to issue senior securities representing indebtedness and senior securities that are stock, to which we refer collectively as “Senior Securities,” in amounts such that we maintain an asset coverage ratio, as defined in Section 18(h) of the 1940 Act, of at least 200.0% on our Senior Securities immediately after each issuance of such Senior Securities. We may also incur such indebtedness to repurchase our common stock. As a result of incurring indebtedness generally, such as through our revolving line of credit or issuing Senior Securities representing indebtedness, such as our 7.125% Series 2016 Term Preferred Stock (our “Term Preferred Stock”), we are exposed to the risks of leverage. Although borrowing money for investments increases the potential for gain, it also increases the risk of a loss. A decrease in the value of our investments will have a greater impact on the value of our common stock to the extent that we have borrowed money to make investments. There is a possibility that the costs of borrowing could exceed the income we receive on the investments we make with such borrowed funds. Our Board of Directors is authorized to provide for the issuance of Senior Securities with such preferences, powers, rights and privileges as it deems appropriate, subject to the requirements of the 1940 Act. See “ Regulation as a BDC—Asset Coverage ” for a discussion of our leveraging constraints and “ Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our External Financing” for further discussion of certain leveraging risks.

Ongoing Management of Investments and Portfolio Company Relationships

The Adviser’s investment professionals actively oversee each investment by continuously evaluating the portfolio company’s performance and typically working collaboratively with the portfolio company’s management to identify and incorporate best resources and practices that help us achieve our projected investment performance.

Monitoring

The Adviser’s investment professionals monitor the financial performance, trends, and changing risks of each portfolio company on an ongoing basis to determine if each company is performing within expectations and to guide the portfolio company’s management in taking the appropriate courses of action. The Adviser employs various methods of evaluating and monitoring the performance of our investments in portfolio companies, which can include the following:

 

    monthly analysis of financial and operating performance;

 

    assessment of the portfolio company’s performance against its business plan and our investment expectations;

 

    assessment of the investment’s risks;

 

    attendance at and/or participation in the portfolio company’s board of directors or management meetings;

 

    assessment of portfolio company management, sponsor, governance and strategic direction;

 

    assessment of the portfolio company’s industry and competitive environment; and

 

    review and assessment of the portfolio company’s operating outlook and financial projections.

 

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Relationship Management

The Adviser’s investment professionals interact with various parties involved with a portfolio company, or investment, by actively engaging with internal and external constituents, including:

 

    management;

 

    boards of directors;

 

    financial sponsors;

 

    capital partners; and

 

    advisers and consultants.

Managerial Assistance and Services

As a BDC, we make available significant managerial assistance to our portfolio companies and provide other services to such portfolio companies. Neither we, nor the Adviser, currently receive fees in connection with the managerial assistance we make available. At times, the Adviser provides other services to certain of our portfolio companies and it receives fees for these other services. We credit 100.0% of most of these fees against the base management fee that we would otherwise be required to pay to the Adviser.

In February 2011, Gladstone Securities started providing other services (such as investment banking and due diligence services) to certain of our portfolio companies. Any such fees paid by portfolio companies to Gladstone Securities do not impact the overall fees we pay to the Adviser or the overall fees credited against the base management fee.

Valuation Process

The following is a general description of the steps the Adviser takes each quarter to determine the value of our investment portfolio. The Adviser values our investments in accordance with the requirements of the 1940 Act. The Adviser values securities for which market quotations are readily available at their market value. The Adviser values all other securities and assets at fair value as determined in good faith by our Board of Directors. In determining the value of our investments, the Adviser has established an investment valuation policy (the “Policy”). The Policy has been approved by our Board of Directors and each quarter the Board of Directors reviews whether the Adviser has applied the Policy consistently and votes whether or not to accept the recommended valuation of our investment portfolio. Due to the uncertainty inherent in the valuation process, such estimates of fair value may differ significantly from the values that would have been obtained had a ready market for the securities existed. Investments for which market quotations are readily available are recorded in our financial statements at such market quotations. With respect to any investments for which market quotations are not readily available, the Adviser performs the following valuation process each quarter:

 

    Quarterly, each portfolio company or investment is initially assessed by the Adviser’s investment professionals responsible for the investment, using the Policy;

 

    Preliminary valuation conclusions are then discussed with our management, and documented, along with any independent opinions of value provided by Standard & Poor’s Securities Evaluations, Inc. (“SPSE”), for review by our Board of Directors;

 

    Next, our Board of Directors reviews this documentation and discusses the information provided by our management, and the opinions of value provided by SPSE to arrive at a determination that the Policy has been followed for determining the aggregate fair value of our portfolio of investments.

Our valuation policies, procedures and processes are more fully described under “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Critical Accounting Policies — Investment Valuation.”

 

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Investment Advisory and Management Agreements

In 2006, we entered into an amended and restated investment advisory and management agreement with the Adviser (the “Advisory Agreement”). In accordance with the Advisory Agreement, we pay the Adviser fees as compensation for its services, consisting of a base management fee and an incentive fee. On July 9, 2013, our Board of Directors approved the annual renewal of the Advisory Agreement with the Adviser through August 31, 2014. Mr. Gladstone, our chairman, chief executive officer and president, controls the Adviser.

Base Management Fee

The base management fee is computed and payable quarterly and is assessed at an annual rate of 2.0% computed on the basis of the value of our average gross assets at the end of the two most recently completed quarters, which are total assets, including investments made with proceeds of borrowings, less any uninvested cash or cash equivalents resulting from borrowings. Overall, the base management fee cannot exceed 2.0% of total assets (as reduced by cash and cash equivalents pledged to creditors) during any given fiscal year. In addition, the following three items are potential adjustments to the base management fee calculation.

 

    Loan Servicing Fees

The Adviser also services the loans held by our wholly-owned subsidiary, Gladstone Business Loan, LLC (“Business Loan”), in return for which the Adviser receives a 1.5% annual fee based on the monthly aggregate outstanding balance of loans pledged under our revolving line of credit. Since we own these loans, all loan servicing fees paid to the Adviser are treated as reductions directly against the 2.0% base management fee under the Advisory Agreement.

 

    Senior Syndicated Loan Fee Waiver Credit

Our Board of Directors accepted an unconditional and irrevocable voluntary waiver from the Adviser to reduce the annual 2.0% base management fee on senior syndicated loan participations to 0.5%, to the extent that proceeds resulting from borrowings were used to purchase such syndicated loan participations, for the years ended September 30, 2013 and 2012.

 

    Portfolio Company Fees Credit

Under the Advisory Agreement, the Adviser has also provided and continues to provide managerial assistance to our portfolio companies. The Adviser may also provide other services to our portfolio companies under other agreements and may receive fees for services other than managerial assistance. We credit 100.0% of most of these fees against the base management fee that we would otherwise be required to pay to the Adviser.

Incentive Fee

The incentive fee consists of two parts: an income-based incentive fee and a capital gains-based incentive fee. The income-based incentive fee rewards the Adviser if our quarterly net investment income (before giving effect to any incentive fee) exceeds 1.75% of our net assets (the “hurdle rate”). We will pay the Adviser an income-based incentive fee with respect to our pre-incentive fee net investment income in each calendar quarter as follows:

 

    no incentive fee in any calendar quarter in which our pre-incentive fee net investment income does not exceed the hurdle rate (7.0% annualized);

 

    100.0% of our pre-incentive fee net investment income with respect to that portion of such pre-incentive fee net investment income, if any, that exceeds the hurdle rate but is less than 2.1875% in any calendar quarter (8.75% annualized); and

 

    20.0% of the amount of our pre-incentive fee net investment income, if any, that exceeds 2.1875% in any calendar quarter (8.75% annualized).

 

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Quarterly Incentive Fee Based on Net Investment Income

Pre-incentive fee net investment income

(expressed as a percentage of the value of net assets)

 

LOGO

Percentage of pre-incentive fee net investment income

allocated to income-related portion of incentive fee

The second part of the incentive fee is a capital gains-based incentive fee that is determined and payable in arrears as of the end of each fiscal year (or upon termination of the Advisory Agreement, as of the termination date), and equals 20.0% of our realized capital gains as of the end of the fiscal year. In determining the capital gains-based incentive fee payable to the Adviser, we calculate the cumulative aggregate realized capital gains and cumulative aggregate realized capital losses since our inception, and the entire portfolio’s aggregate net unrealized capital depreciation, if any, as of the date of the calculation. For this purpose, cumulative aggregate realized capital gains, if any, equals the sum of the differences between the net sales price of each investment, when sold, and the original cost of such investment since our inception. Cumulative aggregate realized capital losses equals the sum of the amounts by which the net sales price of each investment, when sold, is less than the original cost of such investment since our inception. The entire portfolio’s aggregate net unrealized capital depreciation, if any, equals the sum of the difference, between the valuation of each investment as of the applicable calculation date and the original cost of such investment. At the end of the applicable year, the amount of capital gains that serves as the basis for our calculation of the capital gains-based incentive fee equals the cumulative aggregate realized capital gains less cumulative aggregate realized capital losses, less the entire portfolio’s aggregate net unrealized capital depreciation, if any. If this number is positive at the end of such year, then the capital gains-based incentive fee for such year equals 20.0% of such amount, less the aggregate amount of any capital gains-based incentive fees paid in respect of our portfolio in all prior years. We have not incurred capital gains-based incentive fees from inception through September 30, 2013, as cumulative unrealized capital depreciation has exceeded cumulative realized capital gains net of cumulative realized capital losses.

Additionally, in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“GAAP”), a capital gains-based incentive fee is calculated using the aggregate cumulative realized capital gains and losses and aggregate cumulative unrealized capital depreciation included in the calculation of the capital gains-based incentive fee plus the aggregate cumulative unrealized capital appreciation. If such amount is positive at the end of a period, then GAAP requires us to record a capital gains-based incentive fee equal to 20.0% of such amount, less the aggregate amount of actual capital gains-based incentive fees paid in all prior years. If such amount is negative, then there is no accrual for such year. GAAP requires that the capital gains-based incentive fee accrual consider the cumulative aggregate unrealized capital appreciation in the calculation, as a capital gains-based incentive fee would be payable if such unrealized capital appreciation were realized. There can be no assurance that any such unrealized capital appreciation will be realized in the future. There has been no GAAP accrual recorded for a capital gains-based incentive fee since our inception through September 30, 2013.

Our Board of Directors accepted an unconditional and irrevocable voluntary waiver from the Adviser to reduce the income-based incentive fee to the extent net investment income did not cover 100.0% of the distributions to common stockholders for the years ended September 30, 2013 and 2012 which waivers totaled $1.0 million and $0.3 million, respectively.

Administration Agreement

In 2006, we entered into an administration agreement with the Administrator ( the “Administration Agreement”), whereby we pay separately for administrative services. The Administration Agreement provides for payments equal to our allocable portion of the Administrator’s overhead expenses in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement, including, but not limited to, rent and salaries and benefits expenses of our chief financial officer, treasurer, chief compliance officer, internal counsel and secretary and their respective staffs. Our allocable portion of expenses is derived by multiplying the Administrator’s total allocable expenses by the percentage of our total assets at the beginning of the quarter in comparison to the total assets at the beginning of the quarter of all companies serviced by the Administrator under similar agreements. These administrative fees are accrued at the end of the quarter when the services are performed and generally paid the following quarter. On July 9, 2013, our Board of Directors approved the annual renewal of the Administration Agreement through August 31, 2014.

 

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Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

Regulated Investment Company Status

To maintain the qualification for treatment as a RIC under the Code, we must distribute to our stockholders, for each taxable year, at least 90.0% of our “investment company taxable income”, which is generally our ordinary income plus the excess of our net short-term capital gains over net long-term capital losses. We refer to this as the “annual distribution requirement”. We must also meet several additional requirements, including:

 

    Business Development Company status. At all times during the taxable year, we must maintain our status as a BDC.

 

    Income source requirements. At least 90.0% of our gross income for each taxable year must be from dividends, interest, payments with respect to securities loans, gains from sales or other dispositions of securities or other income derived with respect to our business of investing in securities, and net income derived from an interest in a qualified publicly traded partnership.

 

    Asset diversification requirements. As of the close of each quarter of our taxable year: (1) at least 50.0% of the value of our assets must consist of cash, cash items, U.S. government securities, the securities of other regulated investment companies and other securities to the extent that (a) we do not hold more than 10.0% of the outstanding voting securities of an issuer of such other securities and (b) such other securities of any one issuer do not represent more than 5.0% of our total assets; and (2) no more than 25.0% of the value of our total assets may be invested in the securities of one issuer (other than U.S. government securities or the securities of other regulated investment companies), or of two or more issuers that are controlled by us and are engaged in the same or similar or related trades or businesses or in the securities of one or more qualified publicly traded partnerships.

Failure to Qualify as a RIC

If we are unable to qualify for treatment as a RIC, we will be subject to tax on all of our taxable income at regular corporate rates. We would not be able to deduct distributions to stockholders, nor would we be required to make such distributions. Distributions would be taxable to our stockholders as dividend income to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits. Subject to certain limitations under the Code, corporate distributees would be eligible for the dividends received deduction. Distributions in excess of our current and accumulated earnings and profits would be treated first as a return of capital to the extent of the stockholder’s adjusted tax basis, and then as a gain realized from the sale or exchange of property. If we fail to meet the RIC requirements for more than two consecutive years and then seek to requalify as a RIC, we would be required to recognize a gain on any unrealized appreciation with respect to our assets to the extent that any such unrealized appreciation is recognized during a specified period up to 10-years. Absent such special election, any gain we recognized would be deemed distributed to our stockholders as a taxable distribution.

Qualification as a RIC

If we qualify as a RIC and distribute to stockholders each year in a timely manner at least 90.0% of our investment company taxable income, we will not be subject to federal income tax on the portion of our taxable income and gains we distribute to stockholders. We would, however, be subject to a 4.0% nondeductible federal excise tax if we do not distribute, actually or on a deemed basis, an amount at least equal to the sum of (1) 98.0% of our ordinary income for the calendar year, (2) 98.2% of our capital gains in excess of capital losses for the one-year period ending on October 31 of the calendar year and (3) any ordinary income and net capital gains for preceding calendar years that were not distributed during such years. For the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, we did not incur any excise taxes.

The federal excise tax would apply only to the amount by which the required distributions exceed the amount of income we distribute, actually or on a deemed basis, to stockholders. We will be subject to regular corporate income tax, currently at rates up to 35.0%, on any undistributed income, including both ordinary income and capital gains.

If we acquire debt obligations that were originally issued at a discount that bear interest at rates that are not either fixed rates or certain qualified variable rates or that are not unconditionally payable at least annually over the life of the obligation, we will be required to include in taxable income each year a portion of the original issue discount (“OID”) that accrues over the life of the obligation. Additionally, PIK interest, which is computed at the contractual rate specified in a loan agreement and is added to the principal balance of a loan, is also a non cash source of income that we are required to include in taxable income each year. Both OID and PIK income will be included in our investment company taxable income even though we receive no cash corresponding to such amounts. As a result, we may be required to make additional distributions corresponding to such OID and PIK amounts in order to satisfy the annual distribution requirement and to continue to qualify as a RIC or to avoid the imposition of federal income and excise taxes. In this event, we may be required to sell investments

 

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or other assets to meet the RIC distribution requirements. Our OID investments totaled $74.1 million as of September 30, 2013, at cost, which are primarily all syndicated loan investments. For the year ended September 30, 2013, we incurred $0.3 million of OID income and the unamortized balance of OID investments as of September 30, 2013 totaled $1.0 million. As of September 30, 2013, we had three investments which had a PIK interest component and we recorded PIK interest income of $0.3 million during the year ended September 30, 2013. We collected no PIK interest in cash for the year ended September 30, 2013.

Taxation of Our U.S. Stockholders

Distributions

For any period during which we qualify as a RIC for federal income tax purposes, distributions to our stockholders attributable to our investment company taxable income generally will be taxable as ordinary income to stockholders to the extent of our current or accumulated earnings and profits. We first allocate our earnings and profits to distributions to our preferred stockholders and then to distributions to our common stockholders based on priority in our capital structure. Any distributions in excess of our earnings and profits will first be treated as a return of capital to the extent of the stockholder’s adjusted basis in his or her shares of common stock and thereafter as gain from the sale of shares of our common stock. Distributions of our long-term capital gains, reported by us as such, will be taxable to stockholders as long-term capital gains regardless of the stockholder’s holding period for its common stock and whether the distributions are paid in cash or invested in additional common stock. Corporate stockholders are generally eligible for the 70.0% dividends received deduction with respect to dividends received from us, other than capital gains dividends, to the extent such amount reported by us does not exceed the dividends received by us from domestic corporations. Any dividend declared by us in October, November or December of any calendar year, payable to stockholders of record on a specified date in such a month and actually paid during January of the following year, will be treated as if it were paid by us and received by the stockholders on December 31 of the previous year. In addition, we may elect (in accordance with Section 855(a) of the Code) to relate a dividend back to the prior taxable year if we (1) declare such dividend prior to the later of the due date for filing our return for that taxable year or the 15 th day of the ninth month following the close of the taxable year, (2) make the election in that return, and (3) distribute the amount in the 12-month period following the close of the taxable year but not later than the first regular dividend payment of the same type following the declaration. Any such election will not alter the general rule that a stockholder will be treated as receiving a dividend in the taxable year in which the distribution is made, subject to the October, November, December rule described above.

If a common stockholder participates in our “opt in” dividend reinvestment plan, any distributions reinvested under the plan will be taxable to the common stockholder to the same extent, and with the same character, as if the common stockholder had received the distribution in cash. The common stockholder will have an adjusted basis in the additional common shares purchased through the plan equal to the amount of the reinvested distribution. The additional shares will have a new holding period commencing on the day following the day on which the shares are credited to the common stockholder’s account. We do not have a dividend reinvestment plan for our preferred stockholders.

Sale of Our Shares 

A U.S. stockholder generally will recognize taxable gain or loss if the U.S. stockholder sells or otherwise disposes of his, her or its shares of our common or preferred stock. Any gain arising from such sale or disposition generally will be treated as long-term capital gain or loss if the U.S. stockholder has held his, her or its shares for more than one year. Otherwise, it will be classified as short-term capital gain or loss. However, any capital loss arising from the sale or disposition of shares of our common stock held for six months or less will be treated as long-term capital loss to the extent of the amount of capital gain dividends received, or undistributed capital gain deemed received, with respect to such shares. Under the tax laws in effect as of the date of this filing, individual U.S. stockholders are subject to a maximum federal income tax rate of 20.0% on their net capital gain ( i.e. the excess of realized net long-term capital gain over realized net short-term capital loss for a taxable year) including any long-term capital gain derived from an investment in our shares. Such rate is lower than the maximum rate on ordinary income currently payable by individuals. Corporate U.S. stockholders currently are subject to federal income tax on net capital gain at the same rates applied to their ordinary income (currently up to a maximum of 35.0%). Capital losses are subject to limitations on use for both corporate and non-corporate stockholders. Certain U.S. stockholders who are individuals, estates or trusts generally are subject to a 3.8% Medicare tax on, among other things, dividends on, and capital gain from the sale or other disposition of, shares of our common stock.

 

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Backup Withholding

We may be required to withhold federal income tax, or backup withholding, currently at a rate of 28.0%, from all taxable distributions to any non-corporate U.S. stockholder (1) who fails to furnish us with a correct taxpayer identification number or a certificate that such stockholder is exempt from backup withholding, or (2) with respect to whom the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) notifies us that such stockholder has failed to properly report certain interest and dividend income to the IRS and to respond to notices to that effect. An individual’s taxpayer identification number is generally his or her social security number. Any amount withheld under backup withholding is allowed as a credit against the U.S. stockholder’s federal income tax liability, provided that proper information is provided to the IRS.

The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (“FATCA”) imposes a federal withholding tax on certain types of payments made to “foreign financial institutions” and certain other non-U.S. entities unless certain due diligence, reporting, withholding, and certification obligation requirements are satisfied. Under delayed effective dates provided for in the Treasury Regulations and other IRS guidance, such required withholding will not begin until July 1, 2014 with respect to dividends on our stock, and January 1, 2017 with respect to gross proceeds from a sale or other disposition of our stock.

Regulation as a BDC

We are a closed-end, non-diversified management investment company that has elected to be regulated as a BDC under Section 54 of the 1940 Act. As such, we are subject to regulation under the 1940 Act. The 1940 Act contains prohibitions and restrictions relating to transactions between BDCs and their affiliates, principal underwriters and affiliates of those affiliates or underwriters and requires that a majority of the directors be persons other than “interested persons,” as defined in the 1940 Act. In addition, the 1940 Act provides that we may not change the nature of our business so as to cease to be, or to withdraw our election as, a BDC unless approved by a majority of our outstanding “voting securities,” as defined in the 1940 Act.

We intend to conduct our business so as to retain our status as a BDC. A BDC may use capital provided by public stockholders and from other sources to invest in long-term private investments in businesses. A BDC provides stockholders the ability to retain the liquidity of a publicly traded stock while sharing in the possible benefits, if any, of investing in primarily privately owned companies. In general, a BDC must have been organized and have its principal place of business in the U.S. and must be operated for the purpose of making investments in qualifying assets, as described in Sections 55(a)(1) through (a)(3) of the 1940 Act.

Qualifying Assets

Under the 1940 Act, a BDC may not acquire any asset other than assets of the type listed in Section 55(a) of the 1940 Act, which are referred to as qualifying assets, unless, at the time the acquisition is made, qualifying assets, other than certain interests in furniture, equipment, real estate, or leasehold improvements (“operating assets”) represent at least 70.0% of our total assets, exclusive of operating assets. The types of qualifying assets in which we may invest under the 1940 Act include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

  (1) Securities purchased in transactions not involving any public offering from the issuer of such securities, which issuer is an eligible portfolio company. An eligible portfolio company is generally defined in the 1940 Act as any issuer which:

 

  (a) is organized under the laws of, and has its principal place of business in, any State or States in the U.S.;

 

  (b) is not an investment company (other than a small business investment company wholly owned by the BDC or otherwise excluded from the definition of investment company); and

 

  (c) satisfies one of the following:

 

  (i) it does not have any class of securities with respect to which a broker or dealer may extend margin credit;

 

  (ii) it is controlled by the BDC and for which an affiliate of the BDC serves as a director;

 

  (iii) it has total assets of not more than $4.0 million and capital and surplus of not less than $2 million;

 

  (iv) it does not have any class of securities listed on a national securities exchange; or

 

  (v) it has a class of securities listed on a national securities exchange, with an aggregate market value of outstanding voting and non-voting equity of less than $250.0 million.

 

  (2) Securities received in exchange for or distributed on or with respect to securities described in (1) above, or pursuant to the exercise of options, warrants or rights relating to such securities.

 

  (3) Cash, cash items, government securities or high quality debt securities maturing in one year or less from the time of investment.

 

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Asset Coverage

Pursuant to Section 61(a)(2) of the 1940 Act, we are permitted, under specified conditions, to issue multiple classes of Senior Securities representing indebtedness. However, pursuant to Section 18(c) of the 1940 Act, we are permitted to issue only one class of Senior Securities that is stock. In either case, we may only issue such Senior Securities if such class of Senior Securities, after such issuance, has an asset coverage, as defined in Section 18(h) of the 1940 Act, of at least 200.0%.

In addition, our ability to pay dividends or distributions (other than dividends payable in our stock) to holders of any class of our capital stock would be restricted if our Senior Securities representing indebtedness fail to have an asset coverage of at least 200.0% (measured at the time of declaration of such distribution and accounting for such distribution). The 1940 Act does not apply this limitation to privately arranged debt that is not intended to be publicly distributed, unless this limitation is specifically negotiated by the lender. In addition, our ability to pay dividends or distributions (other than dividends payable in our common stock) to our common stockholders would be restricted if our Senior Securities that are stock fail to have an asset coverage of at least 200.0% (measured at the time of declaration of such distribution and accounting for such distribution). If the value of our assets declines, we might be unable to satisfy these asset coverage requirements. To satisfy the 200.0% asset coverage requirement in the event that we are seeking to pay a distribution, we might either have to (i) liquidate a portion of our loan portfolio to repay a portion of our indebtedness or (ii) issue common stock. This may occur at a time when a sale of a portfolio asset may be disadvantageous, or when we have limited access to capital markets on agreeable terms. In addition, any amounts that we use to service our indebtedness or for offering expenses will not be available for distributions to our stockholders. If we are unable to regain asset coverage through these methods, we may be forced to suspend the payment of such dividends.

Significant Managerial Assistance

A BDC generally must make available significant managerial assistance to issuers of certain of its portfolio securities that the BDC counts as a qualifying asset for the 70.0% test described above. Making available significant managerial assistance means, among other things, any arrangement whereby the BDC, through its directors, officers or employees, offers to provide, and, if accepted, does so provide, significant guidance and counsel concerning the management, operations or business objectives and policies of a portfolio company. Significant managerial assistance also includes the exercise of a controlling influence over the management and policies of the portfolio company. However, with respect to certain, but not all such securities, where the BDC purchases such securities in conjunction with one or more other persons acting together, one of the other persons in the group may make available such managerial assistance, or the BDC may exercise such control jointly.

Investment Policies

We seek to achieve a high level of current income and capital gains through investments in debt securities and preferred and common stock that we acquired in connection with buyout and other recapitalizations. The following investment policies, along with these investment objectives, may not be changed without the approval of our Board of Directors:

 

    We will at all times conduct our business so as to retain our status as a BDC. In order to retain that status, we must be operated for the purpose of investing in certain categories of qualifying assets. In addition, we may not acquire any assets (other than non-investment assets necessary and appropriate to our operations as a BDC or qualifying assets) if, after giving effect to such acquisition, the value of our “qualifying assets” is less than 70.0% of the value of our total assets. We anticipate that the securities we seek to acquire will generally be qualifying assets.

 

    We will at all times endeavor to conduct our business so as to retain our status as a RIC under the Code. To do so, we must meet income source, asset diversification and annual distribution requirements. We may issue Senior Securities, such as debt or preferred stock, to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act for the purpose of making investments, to fund share repurchases, or for temporary emergency or other purposes.

With the exception of our policy to conduct our business as a BDC, these policies are not fundamental and may be changed without stockholder approval.

 

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Code of Ethics

We, and all of the Gladstone Companies (and Gladstone Securities), have adopted a code of ethics and business conduct applicable to all of the officers, directors and employees of such companies that complies with the guidelines set forth in Item 406 of Regulation S-K of the Securities Act of 1933 (the “Securities Act”). As required by the 1940 Act, this code establishes procedures for personal investments, restricts certain transactions by such personnel and requires the reporting of certain transactions and holdings by such personnel. This code of ethics and business conduct is publicly available on the Investor Relations section of our website under “Corporate Governance” at www.GladstoneCapital.com. We intend to provide any required disclosure of any amendments to or waivers of the provisions of this code by posting information regarding any such amendment or waiver to our website or in a Current Report on Form 8-K.

Compliance Policies and Procedures

We and the Adviser have adopted and implemented written policies and procedures reasonably designed to prevent violation of the federal securities laws, and our Board of Directors is required to review these compliance policies and procedures annually to assess their adequacy and the effectiveness of their implementation. We have designated a chief compliance officer, Jack Dellafiora, Jr., who also serves as chief compliance officer for all other Gladstone Companies and Gladstone Securities.

Staffing

We do not currently have any employees and do not expect to have any employees in the foreseeable future. Currently, services necessary for our business are provided by individuals who are employees of the Adviser and the Administrator pursuant to the terms of the Advisory Agreement and the Administration Agreement, respectively. No employee of the Adviser or the Administrator will dedicate all of his or her time to us. However, we expect that 25 to 30 full time employees of the Adviser and the Administrator will spend substantial time on our matters during the remainder of calendar year 2013 and all of calendar year 2014. To the extent we acquire more investments, we anticipate that the number of employees of the Adviser and the Administrator who devote time to our matters will increase.

As of November 19, 2013, the Adviser and the Administrator collectively had 60 full-time employees. A breakdown of these employees is summarized by functional area in the table below:

 

Number of Individuals

    

Functional Area

10      Executive management
14      Accounting, administration, compliance, human resources, legal and treasury
36      Investment management, portfolio management and due diligence

Available Information

Copies of our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and amendments, if any, to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) are available free of charge through our website at www.GladstoneCapital.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such materials are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. A request for any of these reports may also be submitted to us by sending a written request addressed to Investor Relations, Gladstone Capital Corporation, 1521 Westbranch Drive, Suite 100, McLean, VA 22102, or by calling our toll-free investor relations line at 1-866-366-5745. The public may read and copy materials that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. Information on the operation of the Public Reference Room may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC also maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC at www.sec.gov.

 

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider these risk factors, together with all of the other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K and the other reports and documents filed by us with the SEC. The risks set out below are not the only risks we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, or not presently deemed material by us, may also impair our operations and performance. If any of the following events occur, our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows could be materially and adversely affected. In such case, our net asset value and the trading price of our securities could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment. The risk factors described below are the principal risk factors associated with an investment in us as well as those factors generally associated with an investment company with investment objectives, investment policies, capital structure or trading markets similar to ours.

Risks Related to the Economy and Recent Legislation

The failure of U.S. lawmakers to reach an agreement on the national debt ceiling or a budget could have material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

On October 16, 2013, the U.S. Congress passed legislation to reopen the government through January 15, 2014 and effectively suspend the debt ceiling through February 7, 2014 to permit broader negotiations over budget issues. In the event U.S. lawmakers fail to reach a viable agreement on the national debt ceiling or a budget, the U.S. could default on its obligations, which could negatively impact the trading market for U.S. government securities. This may, in turn, negatively affect our ability to obtain financing for our investments. As a result, it may materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. While the U.S. had begun to see improving financial indicators since the 2008 recession, the recent events have created more uncertainty in the U.S. economy and capital markets. Therefore, we remain cautious about a long-term economic recovery.

The recession in general, and the disruptions in the capital markets in particular, have impacted our liquidity options and increased our cost of debt and equity capital. As a result, we do not know if adverse conditions will again intensify, and we are unable to gauge the full extent to which the disruptions will continue to affect us. The longer these uncertain conditions persist, the greater the probability that these factors could continue to increase our costs of, and significantly limit our access to, debt and equity capital and, thus, have an adverse effect on our operations and financial results. Many of our portfolio companies and the companies we may invest in prospectively are also susceptible to these unstable economic conditions, which may affect the ability of one or more of our portfolio companies to repay our loans or engage in a liquidity event, such as a sale, recapitalization or initial public offering. These unstable economic conditions could also disproportionately impact some of the industries in which we invest, causing us to be more vulnerable to losses in our portfolio, which could cause the number of non-performing assets to increase and the fair value of our portfolio to decrease. The unstable economic conditions may also decrease the value of collateral securing some of our loans as well as the value of our equity investments, which would decrease our ability to borrow under our revolving line of credit or raise equity capital, thereby further reducing our ability to make new investments.

There is still a great deal of volatility in the marketplace. Although, the temporary debt-ceiling raise, along with the possibility of another government shutdown, have been put off until early in 2014. The unstable economic conditions have affected the availability of credit generally. We do not know when market conditions will stabilize, if adverse conditions will intensify or the full extent to which the disruptions will continue to affect us. Also, it is possible that persistent instability of the financial markets could have other unforeseen material effects on our business.

 

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A further downgrade of the United States credit rating and the ongoing economic crisis in Europe could negatively impact our liquidity, financial condition and earnings.

Recent U.S. debt ceiling and budget deficit concerns, together with signs of deteriorating sovereign debt conditions in Europe, have increased the possibility of additional credit-rating downgrades and economic slowdowns. In August 2011, Standard & Poor’s Ratings Services lowered its long-term sovereign credit rating on the U.S. from “AAA” to “AA+.” On October 15, 2013, Fitch Ratings Service placed the U.S. credit rating on negative watch, warning that a failure by the U.S. Government to honor interest or principal payments on U.S. treasury securities would impact its decision on whether to downgrade the U.S. credit rating. Fitch also stated that the manner and duration of an agreement to raise the debt ceiling and resolve the budget impasse, as well as the perceived risk of such events occurring in the future, would weigh on its ratings.

The impact of any further downgrades to the U.S. government’s sovereign credit rating, or its perceived creditworthiness, and deteriorating sovereign debt conditions in Europe, is inherently unpredictable and could adversely affect the U.S. and global financial markets and economic conditions. There can be no assurance that governmental or other measures to aid economic recovery will be effective. These developments and the government’s credit concerns in general could cause interest rates and borrowing costs to rise, which may negatively impact our ability to access the debt markets on favorable terms. In addition, the decreased credit rating could create broader financial turmoil and uncertainty, which may weigh heavily on our stock price.

We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly and annual results based on the impact of inflation in the United States.

The majority of our portfolio companies are in industries that are directly impacted by inflation, such as consumer goods and services and manufacturing. Our portfolio companies may not be able to pass on to customers increases in their costs of operations which could greatly affect their operating results, impacting their ability to repay our loans. In addition, any projected future decreases in our portfolio companies’ operating results due to inflation could adversely impact the fair value of those investments. Any decreases in the fair value of our investments could result in future unrealized losses and therefore reduce our net assets resulting from operations.

Recent healthcare reform legislation may affect our results of operations and financial condition.

On March 23, 2010, the President of the United States signed into law the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 and on March 30, 2010, the President signed into law the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act, which in part modified the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the “Acts”). Together, the two Acts serve as the primary vehicle for comprehensive health care reform in the U.S. The Acts are intended to reduce the number of individuals in the U.S. without health insurance and effect significant other changes to the ways in which health care is organized, delivered and reimbursed. The complexities and ramifications of the new legislation are significant, and have begun being implemented through a phased approach concluding in 2018. At this time, the effects of health care reform and its impact on our portfolio companies’ business, results of operations and financial condition and the resulting impact on our operations are not yet known. Accordingly, the Acts could adversely affect the cost of providing healthcare coverage generally and could adversely affect the financial and operational performance of the portfolio companies in which we invest and therefore our financial and operational performance.

Risks Related to Our External Management

We are dependent upon our key management personnel and the key management personnel of the Adviser, particularly David Gladstone and Terry Lee Brubaker, and on the continued operations of the Adviser, for our future success.

We have no employees. Our chief executive officer and president, chief operating officer, chief financial officer, treasurer, and the employees of the Adviser, do not spend all of their time managing our activities and our investment portfolio. We are particularly dependent upon David Gladstone and Terry Lee Brubaker. Our executive officers and the employees of the Adviser allocate some, and in some cases a material portion, of their time to businesses and activities that are not related to our business. We have no separate facilities and are completely reliant on the Adviser, which has significant discretion as to the implementation and execution of our business strategies and risk management practices. We are subject to the risk of discontinuation of the Adviser’s operations or termination of the Advisory Agreement and the risk that, upon such event, no suitable replacement will be found. We believe that our success depends to a significant extent upon the Adviser and that discontinuation of its operations could have a material adverse effect on our ability to achieve our investment objectives.

 

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Our success depends on the Adviser’s ability to attract and retain qualified personnel in a competitive environment.

The Adviser experiences competition in attracting and retaining qualified personnel, particularly investment professionals and senior executives, and we may be unable to maintain or grow our business if we cannot attract and retain such personnel. The Adviser’s ability to attract and retain personnel with the requisite credentials, experience and skills depends on several factors including, but not limited to, its ability to offer competitive wages, benefits and professional growth opportunities. The Adviser competes with investment funds (such as private equity funds and mezzanine funds) and traditional financial services companies for qualified personnel, many of which have greater resources than us. Searches for qualified personnel may divert management’s time from the operation of our business. Strain on the existing personnel resources of the Adviser, in the event that it is unable to attract experienced investment professionals and senior executives, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

The Adviser can resign on 60 days’ notice, and we may not be able to find a suitable replacement within that time, resulting in a disruption in our operations that could adversely affect our financial condition, business and results of operations.

The Adviser has the right to resign under the Advisory Agreement at any time upon not less than 60 days’ written notice, whether we have found a replacement or not. If the Adviser resigns, we may not be able to find a new investment adviser or hire internal management with similar expertise and ability to provide the same or equivalent services on acceptable terms within 60 days, or at all. If we are unable to do so quickly, our operations are likely to experience a disruption, our financial condition, business and results of operations as well as our ability to pay distributions are likely to be adversely affected and the market price of our shares may decline. In addition, the coordination of our internal management and investment activities is likely to suffer if we are unable to identify and reach an agreement with a single institution or group of executives having the expertise possessed by the Adviser and its affiliates. Even if we are able to retain comparable management, whether internal or external, the integration of such management and their lack of familiarity with our investment objective may result in additional costs and time delays that may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our incentive fee may induce the Adviser to make certain investments, including speculative investments.

The management compensation structure that has been implemented under the Advisory Agreement may cause the Adviser to invest in high-risk investments or take other risks. In addition to its management fee, the Adviser is entitled under the Advisory Agreement to receive incentive compensation based in part upon our achievement of specified levels of income. In evaluating investments and other management strategies, the opportunity to earn incentive compensation based on net income may lead the Adviser to place undue emphasis on the maximization of net income at the expense of other criteria, such as preservation of capital, maintaining sufficient liquidity, or management of credit risk or market risk, in order to achieve higher incentive compensation. Investments with higher yield potential are generally riskier or more speculative. This could result in increased risk to the value of our investment portfolio.

We may be obligated to pay the Adviser incentive compensation even if we incur a loss.

The Advisory Agreement entitles the Adviser to incentive compensation for each fiscal quarter in an amount equal to a percentage of the excess of our investment income for that quarter (before deducting incentive compensation, net operating losses and certain other items) above a threshold return for that quarter. When calculating our incentive compensation, our pre-incentive fee net investment income excludes realized and unrealized capital losses that we may incur in the fiscal quarter, even if such capital losses result in a net loss on our statement of operations for that quarter. Thus, we may be required to pay the Adviser incentive compensation for a fiscal quarter even if there is a decline in the value of our portfolio or we incur a net loss for that quarter. For additional information on incentive compensation under the Advisory Agreement with the Adviser, see “ Business — Investment Advisory and Management Agreements.

We may be required to pay the Adviser incentive compensation on income accrued, but not yet received in cash.

That part of the incentive fee payable by us that relates to our net investment income is computed and paid on income that may include interest that has been accrued but not yet received in cash, such as debt instruments with PIK interest or OID. If a portfolio company defaults on a loan, it is possible that such accrued interest previously used in the calculation of the incentive fee will become uncollectible. Consequently, we may make incentive fee payments on income accruals that we may not collect in the future and with respect to which we do not have a clawback right against the Adviser. Our OID investments totaled $74.1 million as of September 30, 2013, at cost, which are primarily all syndicated loan investments. For the year ended September 30, 2013, we incurred $0.3 million of OID income and the unamortized balance of OID investments as of September 30, 2013 totaled $1.0 million. As of September 30, 2013, we had three investments which had a PIK interest component and we recorded PIK interest income of $0.3 million during the year ended September 30, 2013. We collected no PIK interest in cash for the year ended September 30, 2013.

 

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The Adviser’s failure to identify and invest in securities that meet our investment criteria or perform its responsibilities under the Advisory Agreement would likely adversely affect our ability for future growth.

Our ability to achieve our investment objectives will depend on our ability to grow, which in turn will depend on the Adviser’s ability to identify and invest in securities that meet our investment criteria. Accomplishing this result on a cost-effective basis will be largely a function of the Adviser’s structuring of the investment process, its ability to provide competent and efficient services to us, and our access to financing on acceptable terms. The senior management team of the Adviser has substantial responsibilities under the Advisory Agreement. In order to grow, the Adviser will need to hire, train, supervise, and manage new employees successfully. Any failure to manage our future growth effectively would likely have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

There are significant potential conflicts of interest which could impact our investment returns.

Our executive officers and directors, and the officers and directors of the Adviser, serve or may serve as officers, directors, or principals of entities that operate in the same or a related line of business as we do or of investment funds managed by our affiliates. Accordingly, they may have obligations to investors in those entities, the fulfillment of which might not be in the best interests of us or our stockholders. For example, Mr. Gladstone, our chairman, chief executive officer and president, is the chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the Adviser, Gladstone Investment, Gladstone Commercial and Gladstone Land. In addition, Mr. Brubaker, our vice chairman and chief operating officer, is the vice chairman and chief operating officer of the Adviser, Gladstone Investment, Gladstone Commercial and Gladstone Land. Moreover, the Adviser may establish or sponsor other investment vehicles which from time to time may have potentially overlapping investment objectives with ours and accordingly may invest in, whether principally or secondarily, asset classes we target. While the Adviser generally has broad authority to make investments on behalf of the investment vehicles that it advises, the Adviser has adopted investment allocation procedures to address these potential conflicts and intends to direct investment opportunities to the Gladstone affiliate with the investment strategy that most closely fits the investment opportunity. Nevertheless, the management of the Adviser may face conflicts in the allocation of investment opportunities to other entities managed by the Adviser. As a result, it is possible that we may not be given the opportunity to participate in certain investments made by other funds managed by the Adviser. On October 10, 2012, our Board of Directors approved a revision of our investment objectives and strategies that became effective on January 1, 2013, which may enhance the potential for conflicts in the allocation of investment opportunities to us and other entities managed by the Adviser.

In certain circumstances, we may make investments in a portfolio company in which one of our affiliates has or will have an investment, subject to satisfaction of any regulatory restrictions and, where required, to the prior approval of our Board of Directors. As of September 30, 2013, our Board of Directors has approved the following types of co-investment transactions:

 

    Our affiliate, Gladstone Commercial, may, under certain circumstances, lease property to portfolio companies that we do not control. We may pursue such transactions only if (i) the portfolio company is not controlled by us or any of our affiliates, (ii) the portfolio company satisfies the tenant underwriting criteria of Gladstone Commercial, and (iii) the transaction is approved by a majority of our independent directors and a majority of the independent directors of Gladstone Commercial. We expect that any such negotiations between Gladstone Commercial and our portfolio companies would result in lease terms consistent with the terms that the portfolio companies would be likely to receive were they not portfolio companies of ours.

 

    We may invest simultaneously with our affiliate Gladstone Investment in senior syndicated loans whereby neither we nor any affiliate has the ability to dictate the terms of the loans.

 

    Additionally, pursuant to an exemptive order granted by the SEC in July 2012, under certain circumstances, we may co-invest with Gladstone Investment and any future BDC or closed-end management investment company that is advised by the Adviser (or sub-advised by the Adviser if it controls the fund), or any combination of the foregoing, subject to the conditions included therein.

Certain of our officers, who are also officers of the Adviser, may from time to time serve as directors of certain of our portfolio companies. If an officer serves in such capacity with one of our portfolio companies, such officer will owe fiduciary duties to the stockholders of the portfolio company, which duties may from time to time conflict with the interests of our stockholders.

 

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In the course of our investing activities, we will pay management and incentive fees to the Adviser and will reimburse the Administrator for certain expenses it incurs. As a result, investors in our common stock will invest on a “gross” basis and receive distributions on a “net” basis after expenses, resulting in, among other things, a lower rate of return than one might achieve through our investors themselves making direct investments. As a result of this arrangement, there may be times when the management team of the Adviser has interests that differ from those of our stockholders, giving rise to a conflict. In addition, as a BDC, we make available significant managerial assistance to our portfolio companies and provide other services to such portfolio companies. Although, neither we nor the Adviser currently receives fees in connection with managerial assistance, the Adviser and Gladstone Securities have, at various times, provided other services to certain of our portfolio companies and received fees for these other services.

The Adviser is not obligated to provide a waiver of the base management fee, which could negatively impact our earnings and our ability to maintain our current level of distributions to our stockholders.

The Advisory Agreement provides for a base management fee based on our gross assets. Since our 2007 fiscal year, our Board of Directors has accepted on a quarterly basis voluntary, unconditional and irrevocable waivers to reduce the annual 2.0% base management fee on senior syndicated loan participations to 0.5% to the extent that proceeds resulting from borrowings were used to purchase such syndicated loan participations, and any waived fees may not be recouped by the Adviser in the future. However, the Adviser is not required to issue these or other waivers of fees under the Advisory Agreement, and to the extent our investment portfolio grows in the future, we expect these fees will increase. If the Adviser does not issue these waivers in future quarters, it could negatively impact our earnings and may compromise our ability to maintain our current level of distributions to our stockholders, which could have a material adverse impact on our stock price.

Our business model is dependent upon developing and sustaining strong referral relationships with investment bankers, business brokers and other intermediaries and any change in our referral relationships may impact our business plan.

We are dependent upon informal relationships with investment bankers, business brokers and traditional lending institutions to provide us with deal flow. If we fail to maintain our relationship with such funds or institutions, or if we fail to establish strong referral relationships with other funds, we will not be able to grow our portfolio of investments and fully execute our business plan.

Our base management fee may induce the Adviser to incur leverage.

The fact that our base management fee is payable based upon our gross assets, which would include any investments made with proceeds of borrowings, may encourage the Adviser to use leverage to make additional investments. Under certain circumstances, the use of increased leverage may increase the likelihood of default, which would disfavor holders of our securities. Given the subjective nature of the investment decisions made by the Adviser on our behalf, we will not be able to monitor this potential conflict of interest.

Risks Related to Our External Financing

In addition to regulatory limitations on our ability to raise capital, our revolving line of credit contains various covenants which, if not complied with, could accelerate our repayment obligations under the facility, thereby materially and adversely affecting our liquidity, financial condition, results of operations and ability to pay distributions.

We will have a continuing need for capital to finance our investments. As of September 30, 2013, we had $46.9 million in borrowings outstanding under our fourth amended and restated credit agreement (our “Credit Facility”), which provides for maximum borrowings of $137.0 million. Our Credit Facility permits us to fund additional loans and investments as long as we are within the conditions set forth in the credit agreement. Our Credit Facility contains covenants that require Business Loan to maintain its status as a separate legal entity, prohibit certain significant corporate transactions (such as mergers, consolidations, liquidations or dissolutions) and restrict material changes to our credit and collection policies. The facility also limits payments of distributions to our stockholders to the aggregate net investment income for each of the twelve month periods ending September 30, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. Business Loan is also subject to certain limitations on the type of loan investments it can apply as collateral towards the borrowing base in order to receive additional borrowing availability under our Credit Facility, including restrictions on geographic concentrations, sector concentrations, loan size, interest rate type, payment frequency and status, average life and lien property. Our Credit Facility further requires Business Loan to

 

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comply with other financial and operational covenants, which obligate Business Loan to, among other things, maintain certain financial ratios, including asset and interest coverage, and a required minimum number of 20 obligors in the borrowing base. Additionally, we are subject to a performance guaranty that requires us to maintain (i) a minimum net worth (defined in our Credit Facility to include our Term Preferred Stock) of $190.0 million plus 50.0% of all equity and subordinated debt raised after January 19, 2012, which equates to $190.0 million as of September 30, 2013, (ii) asset coverage with respect to Senior Securities representing indebtedness of at least 200.0%, in accordance with Section 18 of the 1940 Act and (iii) our status as a BDC under the 1940 Act and as a RIC under the Code. As of September 30, 2013, we were in compliance with all of our Credit Facility covenants; however, our continued compliance depends on many factors, some of which are beyond our control.

Given the continued uncertainty in the capital markets, the cumulative unrealized depreciation in our portfolio may increase in future periods and threaten our ability to comply with the minimum net worth covenant and other covenants under our Credit Facility. Our failure to satisfy these covenants could result in foreclosure by our lenders, which would accelerate our repayment obligations under the facility and thereby have a material adverse effect on our business, liquidity, financial condition, results of operations and ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.

Any inability to renew, extend or replace our Credit Facility on terms favorable to us, or at all, could adversely impact our liquidity and ability to fund new investments or maintain distributions to our stockholders.

The maturity date of our Credit Facility is January 19, 2016 (the “Maturity Date”). If our Credit Facility is not renewed or extended by the Maturity Date, all principal and interest will be due and payable on or before January 19, 2017 (one year after the Maturity Date). Subject to certain terms and conditions, our Credit Facility may be expanded to a total of $237.0 million through the addition of other lenders to the facility. However, if additional lenders are unwilling to join the facility on its terms, we will be unable to expand the facility and thus will continue to have limited availability to finance new investments under our Credit Facility. There can be no guarantee that we will be able to renew, extend or replace our Credit Facility upon its maturity in 2016 on terms that are favorable to us, if at all. Our ability to expand our Credit Facility, and to obtain replacement financing at the time of its maturity, will be constrained by then-current economic conditions affecting the credit markets. In the event that we are not able to expand our Credit Facility, or to renew, extend or refinance our Credit Facility at the time of its maturity, this could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and ability to fund new investments, our ability to make distributions to our stockholders and our ability to qualify as a RIC under the Code.

If we are unable to secure replacement financing, we may be forced to sell certain assets on disadvantageous terms, which may result in realized losses, and such realized losses could materially exceed the amount of any unrealized depreciation on these assets as of our most recent balance sheet date, which would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Such circumstances would also increase the likelihood that we would be required to redeem some or all of our outstanding Term Preferred Stock, which could potentially require us to sell more assets. In addition to selling assets, or as an alternative, we may issue equity in order to repay amounts outstanding under our Credit Facility. Based on the recent trading prices of our stock, such an equity offering may have a substantial dilutive impact on our existing stockholders’ interest in our earnings, assets and voting interest in us. If we are able to renew, extend or refinance our Credit Facility prior to maturity, any renewal, extension or refinancing of our Credit Facility will potentially result in significantly higher interest rates and related charges and may impose significant restrictions on the use of borrowed funds to fund investments or maintain distributions to stockholders.

Our business plan is dependent upon external financing, which is constrained by the limitations of the 1940 Act.

The last equity offering we completed was for our Term Preferred Stock in November 2011, and there can be no assurance that we will be able to raise capital through issuing equity in the near future. Our business requires a substantial amount of cash to operate and grow. We may acquire such additional capital from the following sources:

 

   

Senior Securities. We may issue debt securities, other evidences of indebtedness (including borrowings under our Credit Facility), Senior Securities representing indebtedness and Senior Securities that are stock up to the maximum amount permitted by the 1940 Act. The 1940 Act currently permits us, as a BDC, to issue Senior Securities representing indebtedness and Senior Securities which are stock (such as our Term Preferred Stock), in amounts such that our asset coverage, as defined in Section 18(h) of the 1940 Act, is at least 200.0% immediately after each issuance of such Senior Security. As a result of incurring indebtedness (in whatever form), we will be exposed to the risks associated with leverage. Although borrowing money for investments increases the potential for gain, it also increases the risk of a loss. A decrease in the value of our investments will have a greater impact on the value of our common stock to the extent that we have borrowed money to make investments. There is a possibility that the costs of borrowing could exceed the income we receive on the investments we make with such borrowed funds. In

 

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addition, our ability to pay distributions, issue Senior Securities or repurchase shares of our common stock would be restricted if the asset coverage on each of our Senior Securities is not at least 200.0%. If the aggregate value of our assets declines, we might be unable to satisfy that 200.0% requirement. To satisfy the 200.0% asset coverage requirement in the event that we are seeking to pay a distribution, we might either have to (i) liquidate a portion of our loan portfolio to repay a portion of our indebtedness or (ii) issue common stock. This may occur at a time when a sale of a portfolio asset may be disadvantageous, or when we have limited access to capital markets on agreeable terms. In addition, any amounts that we use to service our indebtedness or for offering expenses will not be available for distributions to stockholders. Furthermore, if we have to issue common stock at below net asset value (“NAV”) per common share, any non-participating stockholders will be subject to dilution, as described below. Pursuant to Section 61(a)(2) of the 1940 Act, we are permitted, under specified conditions, to issue multiple classes of Senior Securities representing indebtedness. However, pursuant to Section 18(c) of the 1940 Act, we are permitted to issue only one class of Senior Securities that is stock.

 

    Common and Convertible Preferred Stock. Because we are constrained in our ability to issue debt or Senior Securities for the reasons given above, we are dependent on the issuance of equity as a financing source. If we raise additional funds by issuing more common stock, the percentage ownership of our stockholders at the time of the issuance would decrease and our existing common stockholder may experience dilution. In addition, under the 1940 Act, we will generally not be able to issue additional shares of our common stock at a price below NAV per common share to purchasers, other than to our existing stockholders through a rights offering, without first obtaining the approval of our stockholders and our independent directors. If we were to sell shares of our common stock below our then current NAV per common share, such sales would result in an immediate dilution to the NAV per common share. This dilution would occur as a result of the sale of shares at a price below the then current NAV per share of our common stock and a proportionately greater decrease in a stockholder’s interest in our earnings and assets and voting percentage than the increase in our assets resulting from such issuance. For example, if we issue and sell an additional 10.0% of our common stock at a 5.0% discount from NAV, a stockholder who does not participate in that offering for its proportionate interest will suffer NAV dilution of up to 0.5% or $5 per $1,000 of NAV. This imposes constraints on our ability to raise capital when our common stock is trading below NAV per common share, as it generally has for the last several years. As noted above, the 1940 Act prohibits the issuance of multiple classes of Senior Securities that are stock. As a result, we would be prohibited from issuing convertible preferred stock to the extent that such a security was deemed to be a separate class of stock from our outstanding Term Preferred Stock.

We financed certain of our investments with borrowed money and capital from the issuance of Senior Securities, which will magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and may increase the risk of investing in us.

The following table illustrates the effect of leverage on returns from an investment in our common stock assuming various annual returns on our portfolio, net of expenses. The calculations in the table below are hypothetical, and actual returns may be higher or lower than those appearing in the table below.

 

     Assumed Return on Our Portfolio
(Net of Expenses)
 
     (10.0 )%      (5.0 )%      0.0     5.0     10.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Corresponding return to common stockholder (A)

     (15.6 )%      (8.5 )%      (1.3 )%      5.9     13.0

 

(A) The hypothetical return to common stockholders is calculated by multiplying our total assets as of September 30, 2013 by the assumed rates of return and subtracting all interest accrued on our debt for the year ended September 30, 2013, adjusted for the dividends on our Term Preferred Stock; and then dividing the resulting difference by our total assets attributable to common stock. Based on $295.1 million in total assets, $46.9 million in debt, $38.5 million in aggregate liquidation preference of Term Preferred Stock, and $206.0 million in net assets, each as of September 30, 2013.

Based on an aggregate outstanding indebtedness of $46.9 million at cost, as of September 30, 2013, the effective annual interest rate of 5.75% as of that date, and aggregate liquidation preference of our Term Preferred Stock of $38.5 million, our investment portfolio at fair value would have had to produce an annual return of at least 2.0% to cover annual interest payments on the outstanding debt and dividends on our Term Preferred Stock.

 

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A change in interest rates may adversely affect our profitability and our hedging strategy may expose us to additional risks.

We anticipate using a combination of equity and long-term and short-term borrowings to finance our investment activities. As a result, a portion of our income will depend upon the difference between the rate at which we borrow funds and the rate at which we loan these funds. Higher interest rates on our borrowings will decrease the overall return on our portfolio.

Ultimately, we expect approximately 90.0% of the loans in our portfolio to be at variable rates determined on the basis of the LIBOR and approximately 10.0% to be at fixed rates. As of September 30, 2013, based on the total principal balance of debt outstanding, our portfolio consisted of approximately 85.4% of loans at variable rates with floors, approximately 14.6% at fixed rates.

We currently hold one interest rate cap agreement, which is not designated as a hedge for accounting purposes. While hedging activities may insulate us against adverse fluctuations in interest rates, they may also limit our ability to participate in the benefits of lower interest rates with respect to the hedged portfolio. Adverse developments resulting from changes in interest rates or any future hedging transactions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our ability to receive payments pursuant to an interest rate cap agreement is linked to the ability of the counter-party to that agreement to make the required payments. To the extent that the counter-party to the agreement is unable to pay pursuant to the terms of the agreement, we may lose the hedging protection of the interest rate cap agreement.

Pending legislation may allow us to incur additional leverage.

As a BDC, we are generally not permitted to incur indebtedness (which includes senior securities representing indebtedness and senior securities that are stock) unless immediately after such borrowing we have an asset coverage (as defined in Section 18(h) of the 1940 Act) for total of at least 200.0% (i.e. the amount of borrowings may not exceed 50% of the value of our assets). Legislation pending reintroduction to the U.S. House of Representatives, if passed, would modify this section of the 1940 Act and increase the amount of such indebtedness that BDCs may incur by modifying the percentage from 200.0% to 150.0%. As a result, we may be able to incur additional indebtedness in the future and therefore your risk of an investment in us may increase. Our mandatorily redeemable preferred stock is a senior security that is stock and so for this 200.0% asset coverage threshold is included as total indebtedness.

Risks Related to Our Investments

We operate in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities.

There has been increased competitive pressure in the BDC and investment company marketplace for senior and senior subordinated debt, resulting in lower yields for increasingly riskier investments. A large number of entities compete with us and make the types of investments that we seek to make in small and medium-sized companies. We compete with public and private buyout funds, commercial and investment banks, commercial financing companies, and, to the extent that they provide an alternative form of financing, hedge funds. Many of our competitors are substantially larger and have considerably greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do. For example, some competitors may have a lower cost of funds and access to funding sources that are not available to us. In addition, some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments, which would allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish more relationships than us. Furthermore, many of our competitors are not subject to the regulatory restrictions that the 1940 Act imposes on us as a BDC. The competitive pressures we face could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, as a result of this competition, we may not be able to take advantage of attractive investment opportunities from time to time and we can offer no assurance that we will be able to identify and make investments that are consistent with our investment objective. We do not seek to compete based on the interest rates we offer, and we believe that some of our competitors may make loans with interest rates that will be comparable to or lower than the rates we offer. We may lose investment opportunities if we do not match our competitors’ pricing, terms, and structure. However, if we match our competitors’ pricing, terms, and structure, we may experience decreased net interest income and increased risk of credit loss.

Our investments in small and medium-sized portfolio companies are extremely risky and could cause you to lose all or a part of your investment.

Investments in small and medium-sized portfolio companies are subject to a number of significant risks including the following:

 

    Small and medium-sized businesses are likely to have greater exposure to economic downturns than larger businesses. Our portfolio companies may have fewer resources than larger businesses, and thus the recent recession, and any further economic downturns or recessions, are more likely to have a material adverse effect on them. If one of our portfolio companies is adversely impacted by a recession, its ability to repay our loan or engage in a liquidity event, such as a sale, recapitalization or initial public offering would be diminished.

 

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    Small and medium-sized businesses may have limited financial resources and may not be able to repay the loans we make to them. Our strategy includes providing financing to portfolio companies that typically do not have readily available access to financing. While we believe that this provides an attractive opportunity for us to generate profits, this may make it difficult for the portfolio companies to repay their loans to us upon maturity. A borrower’s ability to repay its loan may be adversely affected by numerous factors, including the failure to meet its business plan, a downturn in its industry, or negative economic conditions. Deterioration in a borrower’s financial condition and prospects usually will be accompanied by deterioration in the value of any collateral and a reduction in the likelihood of us realizing on any guaranties we may have obtained from the borrower’s management. As of September 30, 2013, two portfolio companies were on non-accrual status with an aggregate debt cost basis of approximately $39.5 million, or 12.6% of the cost basis of all debt investments in our portfolio. While we are working with the portfolio companies to improve their profitability and cash flows, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prove successful. Although we will sometimes seek to be the senior, secured lender to a borrower, in most of our loans we expect to be subordinated to a senior lender, and our interest in any collateral would, accordingly, likely be subordinate to another lender’s security interest.

 

    Small and medium-sized businesses typically have narrower product lines and smaller market shares than large businesses. Because our target portfolio companies are smaller businesses, they will tend to be more vulnerable to competitors’ actions and market conditions, as well as general economic downturns. In addition, our portfolio companies may face intense competition, including competition from companies with greater financial resources, more extensive development, manufacturing, marketing, and other capabilities and a larger number of qualified managerial, and technical personnel.

 

    There is generally little or no publicly available information about these businesses. Because we seek to invest in privately owned businesses, there is generally little or no publicly available operating and financial information about our potential portfolio companies. As a result, we rely on our officers, the Adviser and its employees, Gladstone Securities and consultants to perform due diligence investigations of these portfolio companies, their operations, and their prospects. We may not learn all of the material information we need to know regarding these businesses through our investigations.

 

    Small and medium-sized businesses generally have less predictable operating results. We expect that our portfolio companies may have significant variations in their operating results, may from time to time be parties to litigation, may be engaged in rapidly changing businesses with products subject to a substantial risk of obsolescence, may require substantial additional capital to support their operations, to finance expansion or to maintain their competitive position, may otherwise have a weak financial position, or may be adversely affected by changes in the business cycle. Our portfolio companies may not meet net income, cash flow, and other coverage tests typically imposed by their senior lenders. A borrower’s failure to satisfy financial or operating covenants imposed by senior lenders could lead to defaults and, potentially, foreclosure on its senior credit facility, which could additionally trigger cross-defaults in other agreements. If this were to occur, it is possible that the borrower’s ability to repay our loan would be jeopardized.

 

    Small and medium-sized businesses are more likely to be dependent on one or two persons. Typically, the success of a small or medium-sized business also depends on the management talents and efforts of one or two persons or a small group of persons. The death, disability, or resignation of one or more of these persons could have a material adverse impact on our borrower and, in turn, on us.

 

    Small and medium-sized businesses may have limited operating histories. While we intend to target stable companies with proven track records, we may make loans to new companies that meet our other investment criteria. Portfolio companies with limited operating histories will be exposed to all of the operating risks that new businesses face and may be particularly susceptible to, among other risks, market downturns, competitive pressures and the departure of key executive officers.

 

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    Debt securities of small and medium-sized private companies typically are not rated by a credit rating agency. Typically a small or medium-sized private business cannot or will not expend the resources to have their debt securities rated by a credit rating agency. We expect that most, if not all, of the debt securities we acquire will be unrated. Investors should assume that these loans would be at rates below what is today considered “investment grade” quality. Investments rated below investment grade are often referred to as high yield securities or junk bonds and may be considered high risk as compared to investment-grade debt instruments.

Because the loans we make and equity securities we receive when we make loans are not publicly traded, there is uncertainty regarding the value of our privately held securities that could adversely affect our determination of our NAV.

Our portfolio investments are, and we expect will continue to be, in the form of securities that are not publicly traded. The fair value of securities and other investments that are not publicly traded may not be readily determinable. Our Board of Directors has the investment valuation policy established by the Adviser and consistently applied valuation procedures used to determine the fair value of these securities quarterly. These procedures for the determination of value of many of our debt securities rely on the opinions of value submitted to the Adviser by SPSE or the use of internally developed discounted cash flow (“DCF”) methodologies or indicative bid prices (“IBP”) offered by the respective originating syndication agent’s trading desk, or secondary desk, specifically for our syndicated loans, or internal methodologies based on the total enterprise value (“TEV”) of the issuer used for certain of our equity investments. SPSE will only evaluate the debt portion of our investments for which the Adviser specifically requests evaluation, and SPSE may decline to make requested evaluations for any reason in its sole discretion. However, to date, SPSE has accepted each of the Adviser’s requests for evaluation.

The Adviser’s use of these fair value methods is inherently subjective and is based on estimates and assumptions of each security. In the event that we are required to sell a security, we may ultimately sell for an amount materially less than the estimated fair value calculated by SPSE, or utilizing the TEV, IBP or the DCF methodology.

The Adviser’s procedures also include provisions whereby it will establish the fair value of any equity securities we may hold where SPSE or third-party agent banks are unable to provide evaluations. The types of factors that may be considered in determining the fair value of our debt and equity securities include some or all of the following:

 

    the nature and realizable value of any collateral;

 

    the portfolio company’s earnings and cash flows and its ability to make payments on its obligations;

 

    the markets in which the portfolio company does business and recent sales to third parties of similar securities;

 

    the comparison to publicly traded companies; and

 

    discounted cash flow and other relevant factors.

Because such valuations, particularly valuations of private securities and private companies, are not susceptible to precise determination, may fluctuate over short periods of time, and may be based on estimates, the Adviser’s determinations of fair value may differ from the values that might have actually resulted had a readily available market for these securities been available.

A portion of our assets are, and will continue to be, comprised of equity securities that are valued based on internal assessment using the Adviser’s own valuation methods approved by our Board of Directors, without the input of SPSE or any other third-party evaluator. We believe that the Adviser’s equity valuation methods reflect those regularly used as standards by other professionals in our industry who value equity securities. However, determination of fair value for securities that are not publicly traded, whether or not the Adviser uses the recommendations of an independent third-party evaluator, necessarily involves the exercise of subjective judgment. Our NAV could be adversely affected if the Adviser’s determinations regarding the fair value of our investments were materially higher than the values that we ultimately realize upon the disposal of such securities.

The lack of liquidity of our privately held investments may adversely affect our business.

We will generally make investments in private companies whose securities are not traded in any public market. Substantially all of the investments we presently hold and the investments we expect to acquire in the future are, and will be, subject to legal and other restrictions on resale and will otherwise be less liquid than publicly traded securities. The illiquidity of our investments may make it difficult for us to quickly obtain cash equal to the value at which we record our investments if the need arises. This could cause us to miss important investment opportunities. In addition, if we are required to liquidate all or a portion of our portfolio quickly, we may record substantial realized losses upon liquidation. We may also face other restrictions on our ability to liquidate an investment in a portfolio company to the extent that we, the Adviser, or our respective officers, employees or affiliates have material non-public information regarding such portfolio company.

 

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Due to the uncertainty inherent in valuing these securities, the Adviser’s determinations of fair value may differ materially from the values that could be obtained if a ready market for these securities existed. Our NAV could be materially affected if the Adviser’s determinations regarding the fair value of our investments are materially different from the values that we ultimately realize upon our disposal of such securities.

When we are a debt or minority equity investor in a portfolio company, which we expect will generally be the case, we may not be in a position to control the entity, and its management may make decisions that could decrease the value of our investment.

We anticipate that most of our investments will continue to be either debt or minority equity investments in our portfolio companies. Therefore, we are and will remain subject to risk that a portfolio company may make business decisions with which we disagree, and the shareholders and management of such company may take risks or otherwise act in ways that do not serve our best interests. As a result, a portfolio company may make decisions that could decrease the value of our portfolio holdings.

In addition, we will generally not be in a position to control any portfolio company by investing in its debt securities. This is particularly true when we invest in syndicated loans, which are loans made by a larger group of investors whose investment objectives of the other lenders may not be completely aligned with ours. As of September 30, 2013, syndicated loans made up approximately 18.4% of our portfolio at cost, or $61.2 million. We therefore are subject to the risk that other lenders in these investments may make decisions that could decrease the value of our portfolio holdings.

We typically invest in transactions involving acquisitions, buyouts and recapitalizations of companies, which will subject us to the risks associated with change in control transactions.

Our strategy, in part, includes making debt and equity investments in companies in connection with acquisitions, buyouts and recapitalizations, which subjects us to the risks associated with change in control transactions. Change in control transactions often present a number of uncertainties. Companies undergoing change in control transactions often face challenges retaining key employees and maintaining relationships with customers and suppliers. While we hope to avoid many of these difficulties by participating in transactions where the management team is retained and by conducting thorough due diligence in advance of our decision to invest, if our portfolio companies experience one or more of these problems, we may not realize the value that we expect in connection with our investments, which would likely harm our operating results and financial condition.

Our portfolio companies may incur debt that ranks equally with, or senior to, our investments in such companies.

We invest primarily in debt securities issued by our portfolio companies. In some cases portfolio companies will be permitted to have other debt that ranks equally with, or senior to, the debt securities in which we invest. By their terms, such debt instruments may provide that the holders thereof are entitled to receive payment of interest and principal on or before the dates on which we are entitled to receive payments in respect of the debt securities in which we invest. Also, in the event of insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization, or bankruptcy of a portfolio company, holders of debt instruments ranking senior to our investment in that portfolio company would typically be entitled to receive payment in full before we receive any distribution in respect of our investment. After repaying such senior creditors, such portfolio company may not have any remaining assets to use for repaying its obligation to us. In the case of debt ranking equally with debt securities in which we invest, we would have to share on an equal basis any distributions with other creditors holding such debt in the event of an insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization, or bankruptcy of a portfolio company.

Prepayments of our investments by our portfolio companies could adversely impact our results of operations and reduce our return on equity.

In addition to risks associated with delays in investing our capital, we are also subject to the risk that investments we make in our portfolio companies may be repaid prior to maturity. For the year ended September 30, 2013, we received principal payments of a combined $110.5 million, of which an aggregate of $79.6 million resulted from 14 portfolio companies who paid off early at par. We will first use any proceeds from prepayments to repay any borrowings outstanding on our Credit Facility. In the event that funds remain after repayment of our outstanding borrowings, then we will generally reinvest these proceeds in government securities, pending their future investment in new debt and/or equity securities. These government securities will typically have substantially lower yields than the debt securities being prepaid and we could experience significant delays in reinvesting these amounts. As a result, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected if one or more of our portfolio companies elect to prepay amounts owed to us. Additionally, prepayments could negatively impact our return on equity, which could result in a decline in the market price of our common stock.

 

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Higher taxation of our portfolio companies may impact our quarterly and annual operating results.

The recession’s adverse effect on federal, state, and municipality revenues may induce these government entities to raise various taxes to make up for lost revenues. Additional taxation may have an adverse affect on our portfolio companies’ earnings and reduce their ability to repay our loans to them, thus affecting our quarterly and annual operating results.

Our portfolio is concentrated in a limited number of companies and industries, which subjects us to an increased risk of significant loss if any one of these companies does not repay us or if the industries experience downturns.

As of September 30, 2013, we had investments in 47 portfolio companies, of which there were five investments that comprised approximately $96.0 million or 37.4% of our total investment portfolio, at fair value. A consequence of a concentration in a limited number of investments is that the aggregate returns we realize may be substantially adversely affected by the unfavorable performance of a small number of such investments or a substantial write-down of any one investment. Beyond our regulatory and income tax diversification requirements, we do not have fixed guidelines for industry concentration and our investments could potentially be concentrated in relatively few industries. In addition, while we do not intend to invest 25.0% or more of our total assets in a particular industry or group of industries at the time of investment, it is possible that as the values of our portfolio companies change, one industry or a group of industries may comprise in excess of 25.0% of the value of our total assets. As a result, a downturn in an industry in which we have invested a significant portion of our total assets could have a materially adverse effect on us. As of September 30, 2013, our largest industry concentrations of our total investments at fair value were in healthcare, education and childcare companies, representing 17.7%; electronic companies, representing 13.1%; and personal and non-durable consumer product companies, representing 11.3%. Therefore, we are susceptible to the economic circumstances in these industries, and a downturn in one or more of these industries could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Our investments are typically long term and will require several years to realize liquidation events.

Since we generally make five to seven year term loans and hold our loans and related warrants or other equity positions until the loans mature, you should not expect realization events, if any, to occur over the near term. In addition, we expect that any warrants or other equity positions that we receive when we make loans may require several years to appreciate in value and we cannot give any assurance that such appreciation will occur.

The disposition of our investments may result in contingent liabilities.

Currently, all of our investments involve private securities. In connection with the disposition of an investment in private securities, we may be required to make representations about the business and financial affairs of the underlying portfolio company typical of those made in connection with the sale of a business. We may also be required to indemnify the purchasers of such investment to the extent that any such representations turn out to be inaccurate or with respect to certain potential liabilities. These arrangements may result in contingent liabilities that ultimately yield funding obligations that must be satisfied through our return of certain distributions previously made to us.

There may be circumstances where our debt investments could be subordinated to claims of other creditors or we could be subject to lender liability claims.

Even though we have structured some of our investments as senior loans, if one of our portfolio companies were to go bankrupt, depending on the facts and circumstances, including the extent to which we actually provided managerial assistance to that portfolio company, a bankruptcy court might re-characterize our debt investments and subordinate all, or a portion, of our claims to that of other creditors. Holders of debt instruments ranking senior to our investments typically would be entitled to receive payment in full before we receive any distributions. After repaying such senior creditors, such portfolio company may not have any remaining assets to use to repay its obligation to us. We may also be subject to lender liability claims for actions taken by us with respect to a borrower’s business or in instances in which we exercised control over the borrower. It is possible that we could become subject to a lender’s liability claim, including as a result of actions taken in rendering significant managerial assistance.

Portfolio company litigation could result in additional costs and the diversion of management time and resources.

In the course of providing significant managerial assistance to certain of our portfolio companies, our executive officers sometimes serve as directors on the boards of such companies. To the extent that litigation arises out of our investments in these companies, such executive officers may be named as defendants in such litigation, which could result in additional costs and the diversion of management time and resources.

 

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We may not realize gains from our equity investments and other yield enhancements.

When we make a subordinated loan, we may receive warrants to purchase stock issued by the borrower or other yield enhancements, such as success fees. Our goal is to ultimately dispose of these equity interests and realize gains upon our disposition of such interests. We expect that, over time, the gains we realize on these warrants and other yield enhancements will offset any losses we experience on loan defaults. However, any warrants we receive may not appreciate in value and, in fact, may decline in value and any other yield enhancements, such as success fees, may not be realized. Accordingly, we may not be able to realize gains from our equity interests or other yield enhancements and any gains we do recognize may not be sufficient to offset losses we experience on our loan portfolio.

Any unrealized depreciation we experience on our investment portfolio may be an indication of future realized losses, which could reduce our income available for distribution.

As a BDC we are required to carry our investments at market value or, if no market value is ascertainable, at fair value as determined in good faith by or under the direction of our Board of Directors. We will record decreases in the market values or fair values of our investments as unrealized depreciation. Since our inception, we have, at times, incurred a cumulative net unrealized depreciation of our portfolio. Any unrealized depreciation in our investment portfolio could result in realized losses in the future and ultimately in reductions of our income available for distribution to stockholders in future periods.

Risks Related to Our Regulation and Structure

We will be subject to corporate-level tax if we are unable to satisfy Code requirements for RIC qualification.

To maintain our qualification as a RIC, we must meet income source, asset diversification, and annual distribution requirements. The annual distribution requirement is satisfied if we distribute at least 90.0% of our investment company taxable income to our stockholders on an annual basis. Because we use leverage, we are subject to certain asset coverage ratio requirements under the 1940 Act and could, under certain circumstances, be restricted from making distributions necessary to qualify as a RIC. Warrants we receive with respect to debt investments will create “original issue discount,” which we must recognize as ordinary income over the term of the debt investment and which will increase the amounts we are required to distribute to maintain RIC status. Because such warrants will not produce distributable cash for us at the same time as we are required to make distributions in respect of the related original issue discount, we will need to use cash from other sources to satisfy such distribution requirements. The asset diversification requirements must be met at the end of each calendar quarter. If we fail to meet these tests, we may need to quickly dispose of certain investments to prevent the loss of RIC status. Since most of our investments will be illiquid, such dispositions, if even possible, may not be made at prices advantageous to us and, in fact, may result in substantial losses. If we fail to qualify as a RIC for any reason and become fully subject to corporate income tax, the resulting corporate taxes could substantially reduce our net assets, the amount of income available for distribution, and the actual amount distributed. Such a failure would have a material adverse effect on us and our shares. For additional information regarding asset coverage ratio and RIC requirements, see “Business—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Regulated Investment Company Status .”

From time to time, some of our debt investments may include success fees that would generate payments to us if the business is ultimately sold. Because the satisfaction of these success fees, and the ultimate payment of these fees, is uncertain, we do not recognize them as income until we have received payment. We sought and received approval for a change in accounting method from the IRS related to our tax treatment for success fees. As a result, we, in effect, will continue to account for the recognition of income from the success fees upon receipt, or when the amounts become fixed. Prior to January 1, 2011, we treated the success fee amounts as a capital gain for tax characterization purposes. However, effective January 1, 2011, the success fee amounts are characterized as ordinary income for tax purposes. The approved change in accounting method does not require us to retroactively change the capital gains treatment of the success fees received prior to January 1, 2011. As a result, we are required to distribute such amounts to our stockholders in order to maintain RIC status for success fees we receive after January 1, 2011.

 

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Changes in laws or regulations governing our operations, or changes in the interpretation thereof, and any failure by us to comply with laws or regulations governing our operations may adversely affect our business.

We and our portfolio companies are subject to regulation by laws at the local, state and federal levels. These laws and regulations, as well as their interpretation, may be changed from time to time. Accordingly, any change in these laws or regulations, or their interpretation, or any failure by us or our portfolio companies to comply with these laws or regulations may adversely affect our business. For additional information regarding the regulations to which we are subject, see “ Business—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations ” and “ Business— Regulation as a Business Development Company .”

We are subject to restrictions that may discourage a change of control. Certain provisions contained in our articles of incorporation and Maryland law may prohibit or restrict a change of control and adversely impact the price of our shares.

Our Board of Directors is divided into three classes, with the term of the directors in each class expiring every third year. At each annual meeting of stockholders, the successors to the class of directors whose term expires at such meeting will be elected to hold office for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders held in the third year following the year of their election. After election, a director may only be removed by our stockholders for cause. Election of directors for staggered terms with limited rights to remove directors makes it more difficult for a hostile bidder to acquire control of us. The existence of this provision may negatively impact the price of our securities and may discourage third-party bids to acquire our securities. This provision may reduce any premiums paid to stockholders in a change in control transaction.

Certain provisions of Maryland law applicable to us prohibit business combinations with:

 

    any person who beneficially owns 10.0% or more of the voting power of our common stock (an “interested stockholder”);

 

    an affiliate of ours who at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question was an interested stockholder; or

 

    an affiliate of an interested stockholder.

These prohibitions last for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder became an interested stockholder. Thereafter, any business combination with the interested stockholder must be recommended by our Board of Directors and approved by the affirmative vote of at least 80.0% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of our outstanding shares of common stock and two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of our common stock other than shares held by the interested stockholder. These requirements could have the effect of inhibiting a change in control even if a change in control were in our stockholders’ interest. These provisions of Maryland law do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by our Board of Directors prior to the time that someone becomes an interested stockholder.

Our articles of incorporation permit our Board of Directors to issue up to 50.0 million shares of capital stock. In addition, our Board of Directors, without any action by our stockholders, may amend our articles of incorporation from time to time to increase or decrease the aggregate number of shares or the number of shares of any class or series of stock that we have authority to issue. Our Board of Directors may classify or reclassify any unissued common stock or preferred stock and establish the preferences, conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption of any such stock. Thus, our Board of Directors could authorize the issuance of preferred stock with terms and conditions that could have a priority as to distributions and amounts payable upon liquidation over the rights of the holders of our common stock, which it did in connection with our issuance of 1.5 million shares of Term Preferred Stock. Preferred stock, including our Term Preferred Stock, could also have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us, including an extraordinary transaction (such as a merger, tender offer or sale of all or substantially all of our assets) that might provide a premium price for holders of our common stock.

Risks Related to an Investment in Our Securities

We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly and annual operating results.

We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly and annual operating results due to a number of factors, including, among others, variations in our investment income, the interest rates payable on the debt securities we acquire, the default rates on such securities, the level of our expenses, variations in and the timing of the recognition of realized and unrealized gains or losses, the level of our expenses, the degree to which we encounter competition in our markets, and general economic

 

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conditions, including the impacts of inflation. The majority of our portfolio companies are in industries that are directly impacted by inflation, such as manufacturing and consumer goods and services. Our portfolio companies may not be able to pass on to customers increases in their costs of production which could greatly affect their operating results, impacting their ability to repay our loans. In addition, any projected future decreases in our portfolio companies’ operating results due to inflation could adversely impact the fair value of those investments. Any decreases in the fair value of our investments could result in future realized and unrealized losses and therefore reduce our net assets resulting from operations. As a result of these factors, results for any period should not be relied upon as being indicative of performance in future periods.

There is a risk that you may not receive distributions or that distributions may not grow over time.

Our current intention is to distribute at least 90.0% of our investment company taxable income to our stockholders on a quarterly basis by paying monthly distributions. We expect to retain some or all net realized long-term capital gains by first offsetting them with realized capital losses, and secondly through a deemed distribution to supplement our equity capital and support the growth of our portfolio, although our Board of Directors may determine in certain cases to distribute these gains to our common stockholders. In addition, our Credit Facility restricts the amount of distributions we are permitted to make. We cannot assure you that we will achieve investment results or maintain a tax status that will allow or require any specified level of cash distributions.

Investing in our securities may involve an above average degree of risk.

The investments we make in accordance with our investment objective may result in a higher amount of risk than alternative investment options and a higher risk of volatility or loss of principal. Our investments in portfolio companies may be highly speculative, and therefore, an investment in our shares may not be suitable for someone with lower risk tolerance.

Distributions to our stockholders have included and may in the future include a return of capital.

Our Board of Directors declares monthly distributions based on estimates of taxable income for each fiscal year, which may differ, and in the past have differed, from actual results. Because our distributions are based on estimates of taxable income that may differ from actual results, future distributions payable to our stockholders may also include a return of capital. Moreover, to the extent that we distribute amounts that exceed our accumulated earnings and profits, these distributions constitute a return of capital. A return of capital represents a return of a stockholder’s original investment in shares of our stock and should not be confused with a distribution from earnings and profits. Although return of capital distributions may not be taxable, such distributions may increase an investor’s tax liability for capital gains upon the sale of our shares by reducing the investor’s tax basis for such shares. Such returns of capital reduce our asset base and also adversely impact our ability to raise debt capital as a result of the leverage restrictions under the 1940 Act, which could have a material adverse impact on our ability to make new investments.

The market price of our shares may be volatile and fluctuate significantly.

The trading price of our common stock and our preferred stock may fluctuate substantially. In part due to the extreme volatility and disruption that have affected the capital and credit markets over the past few years, we have experienced greater than usual stock price volatility.

The market price and marketability of our shares may from time to time be significantly affected by numerous factors, including many over which we have no control and that may not be directly related to us. These factors include, but are not limited to, the following:

 

    general economic trends and other external factors;

 

    price and volume fluctuations in the stock market from time to time, which are often unrelated to the operating performance of particular companies;

 

    significant volatility in the market price and trading volume of shares of RICs, BDCs or other companies in our sector, which is not necessarily related to the operating performance of these companies;

 

    changes in regulatory policies or tax guidelines, particularly with respect to RICs or BDCs;

 

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    loss of BDC or RIC status;

 

    changes in our earnings or variations in our operating results;

 

    changes in prevailing interest rates;

 

    changes in the value of our portfolio of investments;

 

    any shortfall in our revenue or net income or any increase in losses from levels expected by securities analysts;

 

    departure of key personnel;

 

    operating performance of companies comparable to us;

 

    short-selling pressure with respect to our shares or BDCs generally;

 

    the announcement of proposed, or completed, offerings of our securities, including a rights offering; and

 

    loss of a major funding source.

Fluctuations in the trading prices of our shares may adversely affect the liquidity of the trading market for our shares and, if we seek to raise capital through future equity financings, our ability to raise such equity capital.

The issuance of subscription rights to our existing stockholders may dilute the ownership and voting powers of existing stockholders in our common stock, dilute the NAV of their shares and have a material adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock.

There are significant capital raising constraints applicable to us under the 1940 Act when our common stock is trading below its NAV per share. In the event that we issue subscription rights to our existing stockholders to subscribe for and purchase additional shares of our common stock, there is a significant possibility that the rights offering will dilute the ownership interest and voting power of stockholders who do not fully exercise their subscription rights. Stockholders who do not fully exercise their subscription rights should expect that they will, upon completion of the rights offering, own a smaller proportional interest in us than would otherwise be the case if they fully exercised their subscription rights. In addition, because the subscription price of the rights offering is likely to be less than our most recently determined NAV per common share, our common stockholders are likely to experience an immediate dilution of the per share NAV of their shares as a result of the offer. As a result of these factors, any future rights offerings of our common stock, or our announcement of our intention to conduct a rights offering, could have a material adverse impact on the trading price of our common stock.

Shares of closed-end investment companies frequently trade at a discount from NAV.

Shares of closed-end investment companies frequently trade at a discount from NAV per common share. Since our inception, our common stock has at times traded above NAV, and at times below NAV per share. During the past year, our common stock has consistently, and at times significantly, traded below NAV. Subsequent to September 30, 2013, our common stock has traded at discounts of up to 15.4% of our NAV per share, which was $9.81 as of September 30, 2013. This characteristic of shares of closed-end investment companies is separate and distinct from the risk that our NAV per share will decline. As with any stock, the price of our shares will fluctuate with market conditions and other factors. If shares are sold, the price received may be more or less than the original investment. Whether investors will realize gains or losses upon the sale of our shares will not depend directly upon our NAV, but will depend upon the market price of the shares at the time of sale. Since the market price of our shares will be affected by such factors as the relative demand for and supply of the shares in the market, general market and economic conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict whether the shares will trade at, below or above our NAV. Under the 1940 Act, we are generally not able to issue additional shares of our common stock at a price below NAV per share to purchasers other than our existing stockholders through a rights offering without first obtaining the approval of our common stockholders and our independent directors. Additionally, at times when our common stock is trading below its NAV per share, our dividend yield may exceed the weighted average returns that we would expect to realize on new investments that would be made with the proceeds from the sale of such stock, making it unlikely that we would determine to issue additional shares in such circumstances. Thus, for as long as our common stock trades below NAV we will be subject to significant constraints on our ability to raise capital through the issuance of common stock. Additionally, an extended period of time in which we are unable to raise capital may restrict our ability to grow and adversely impact our ability to increase or maintain our distributions.

 

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Common stockholders may incur dilution if we sell shares of our common stock in one or more offerings at prices below the then current NAV per share of our common stock.

At our most recent annual meeting of stockholders on February 14, 2013, our stockholders approved a proposal designed to allow us to sell shares of our common stock below the then current NAV per share of our common stock in one or more offerings for a period of one year from the date of such approval, subject to certain conditions (including, but not limited to, that the number of common shares issued and sold pursuant to such authority does not exceed 25.0% of our then outstanding common stock immediately prior to each such sale). Absent such stockholder approval, we would not be able to access the capital markets in an offering at below the then current NAV per share due to restrictions applicable to BDCs under the 1940 Act. At the upcoming annual stockholders meeting scheduled for February 13, 2014, our stockholders will again be asked to vote in favor of renewing this proposal for another year. During the past year, our common stock has consistently, and at times significantly, traded below NAV. Any decision to sell shares of our common stock below the then current NAV per share of our common stock would be subject to the determination by our Board of Directors that such issuance is in our and our stockholders’ best interests.

If we were to sell shares of our common stock below NAV per share, such sales would result in an immediate dilution to the NAV per share. This dilution would occur as a result of the sale of shares at a price below the then current NAV per share of our common stock and a proportionately greater decrease in a stockholder’s interest in our earnings and assets and voting interest in us than the increase in our assets resulting from such issuance. The greater the difference between the sale price and the NAV per share at the time of the offering, the more significant the dilutive impact would be. Because the number of shares of common stock that could be so issued and the timing of any issuance is not currently known, the actual dilutive effect, if any, cannot be currently predicted. However, if, for example, we sold an additional 10.0% of our common stock at a 5.0% discount from NAV, a stockholder who did not participate in that offering for its proportionate interest would suffer NAV dilution of up to 0.5% or $5 per $1,000 of NAV.

If we fail to pay dividends on our Term Preferred Stock for two years, the holders of our Term Preferred Stock will be entitled to elect a majority of our directors.

The terms of our Term Preferred Stock provide for annual dividends in the amount of $1.7813 per outstanding share of Term Preferred Stock. In accordance with the terms of our Term Preferred Stock, if dividends thereon are unpaid in an amount equal to at least two years of dividends, the holders of Term Preferred Stock will be entitled to elect a majority of our Board of Directors.

Our Term Preferred Stock magnifies the potential for gain or loss for our holders of common stock and the risks of investing in our common stock in the same way as our borrowings.

Preferred stock, which is another form of leverage, has the same risks to our common stockholders as borrowings because the dividends on any preferred stock we issue must be cumulative. Payment of such dividends and repayment of the liquidation preference of such preferred stock must take preference over any dividends or other payments to our common stockholders. Preferred stockholders are less subject to our expenses or losses and are not entitled to participate in any income or appreciation in excess of their stated preference.

An investment in Term Preferred Stock with a fixed interest rate bears interest rate risk.

Our Term Preferred Stock, in general, pays dividends at a fixed dividend rate of 7.125% per year. Prices of fixed income investments generally vary inversely with changes in market yields. The market yields on securities comparable to our Term Preferred Stock may increase, which would likely result in a decline in the secondary market price of our Term Preferred Stock prior to the term redemption date. This risk may be even more significant in light of the low nature of the currently prevailing market interest rates.

A liquid secondary trading market for our Term Preferred Stock may not develop.

Although our Term Preferred Stock is listed for trading on the NASDAQ, such shares are thinly traded. The market for such shares is relatively illiquid compared to the market for other types of securities, with the spread between the bid and ask prices considerably greater than the spreads of other securities with comparable terms and features.

 

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Our Term Preferred Stock is not rated.

We have not had our Term Preferred Stock rated by any rating agency. Unrated securities usually trade at a discount to similar, rated securities. As a result, there is a risk that the shares of our Term Preferred Stock may trade at a price that is lower than they might otherwise trade if they were rated by a rating agency.

Our Term Preferred Stock bears a risk of early redemption by us.

We may voluntarily redeem some or all of our Term Preferred Stock on or after December 31, 2012, which is four years prior to its mandatory redemption date of December 31, 2016. We also may be forced to redeem some or all of our Term Preferred Stock to meet regulatory requirements and the asset coverage requirements of such shares, and any such redemption may occur at a time that is unfavorable to holders of our Term Preferred Stock. We may have an incentive to redeem our Term Preferred Stock voluntarily before the mandatory redemption date if market conditions allow us to issue other preferred stock or debt securities at a rate that is lower than the fixed dividend rate on our Term Preferred Stock. To date, we have not redeemed any of our Term Preferred Stock.

Claims of holders of our Term Preferred Stock are subject to a risk of subordination relative to holders of our debt instruments.

Rights of holders of our Term Preferred Stock are subordinated to the rights of holders of our indebtedness. Therefore, dividends, distributions and other payments to holders of Term Preferred Stock in liquidation or otherwise may be subject to prior payments due to the holders of our indebtedness. In addition, under some circumstances the 1940 Act may provide debt holders with voting rights that are superior to the voting rights of holders of our Term Preferred Stock.

Holders of our Term Preferred Stock are subject to inflation risk.

Inflation is the reduction in the purchasing power of money resulting from the increase in the price of goods and services. Inflation risk is the risk that the inflation-adjusted, or “real,” value of an investment in Term Preferred Stock or the income from that investment will be worth less in the future. As inflation occurs, the real value of our Term Preferred Stock and dividends payable on such shares declines.

Holders of our Term Preferred Stock bear reinvestment risk .

Given the five-year term and potential for early redemption of our Term Preferred Stock, holders of such shares may face an increased reinvestment risk, which is the risk that the return on an investment purchased with proceeds from the sale or redemption of our Term Preferred Stock may be lower than the return previously obtained from the investment in such shares.

Holders of our Term Preferred Stock bear dividend risk .

We may be unable to pay dividends on our Term Preferred Stock under some circumstances. The terms of our indebtedness preclude the payment of dividends in respect of equity securities, including our Term Preferred Stock, under certain conditions.

There is a risk of delay in our redemption of our Term Preferred Stock, and we may fail to redeem such securities as required by their terms.

We will generally make investments in private companies whose securities are not traded in any public market. Substantially all of the investments we presently hold and the investments we expect to acquire in the future are, and will be, subject to legal and other restrictions on resale and will otherwise be less liquid than publicly traded securities. The illiquidity of our investments may make it difficult for us to obtain cash equal to the value at which we record our investments quickly if a need arises. If we are unable to obtain sufficient liquidity prior to the term redemption date, we may be forced to engage in a partial redemption or to delay a required redemption. If such a partial redemption or delay were to occur, the market price of our Term Preferred Stock might be adversely affected.

 

35


Other Risks

We could face losses and potential liability if intrusion, viruses or similar disruptions to our technology jeopardize our confidential information, whether through breach of our network security or otherwise.

Maintaining our network security is of critical importance because our systems store highly confidential financial models and portfolio company information. Although we have implemented, and will continue to implement, security measures, our technology platform is and will continue to be vulnerable to intrusion, computer viruses or similar disruptive problems caused by transmission from unauthorized users. The misappropriation of proprietary information could expose us to a risk of loss or litigation.

Terrorist attacks, acts of war, or national disasters may affect any market for our common stock, impact the businesses in which we invest, and harm our business, operating results, and financial conditions.

Terrorist acts, acts of war, or national disasters have created, and continue to create, economic and political uncertainties and have contributed to global economic instability. Future terrorist activities, military or security operations, or national disasters could further weaken the domestic/global economies and create additional uncertainties, which may negatively impact the businesses in which we invest directly or indirectly and, in turn, could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results, and financial condition. Losses from terrorist attacks and national disasters are generally uninsurable.

ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS

None.

ITEM 2. PROPERTIES

We do not own any real estate or other physical properties material to our operations. The Adviser is the current leaseholder of all properties in which we operate. We occupy these premises pursuant to our Advisory and Administration Agreements with the Adviser and Administrator, respectively. The Adviser and Administrator are both headquartered in McLean, Virginia, a suburb of Washington, D.C., and the Adviser also has offices in several other states.

ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS

We are not currently subject to any material legal proceedings, nor, to our knowledge, is any material legal proceeding threatened against us.

ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES

Not applicable.

PART II

ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES

Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ under the symbol “GLAD.” The following table reflects, by quarter, the high and low sales prices per share of our common stock on the NASDAQ, the high and low sales prices as a percentage of NAV per common share and quarterly distributions declared per share for each quarter during the last two fiscal years. Amounts presented for each quarter of fiscal years 2013 and 2012 represent the cumulative amount of the distributions declared per common share for the months composing such quarter.

 

     Quarter
Ended
     NAV (A)      Sales Price      (Discount)
Premium of High
to NAV(B)
    Discount of
Low to
NAV(B)
    Declared
Common
Distributions
 
         High      Low         

FY 2013

     09/30/13       $  9.81       $ 8.92       $  8.05         (9.1 )%      (17.9 )%    $  0.210   
     06/30/13         8.60         9.45         7.76         9.9        (9.8     0.210   
     03/31/13         8.91         9.46         8.24         6.2        (7.5     0.210   
     12/31/12         9.17         9.02         7.25         (1.6     (20.9     0.210   

FY 2012

     09/30/12       $ 8.98       $ 9.19       $ 7.86         2.3     (12.5 )%    $ 0.210   
     06/30/12         8.91         8.46         7.30         (5.1     (18.1     0.210   
     03/31/12         9.62         9.33         7.69         (3.0     (20.1     0.210   
     12/31/11         9.90         8.74         6.46         (11.7     (34.7     0.210   

 

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(A) NAV per common share is determined as of the last day in the relevant quarter and therefore may not reflect the NAV per common share on the date of the high and low sales prices. The NAVs shown are based on outstanding common shares at the end of each period.
(B) The (discounts) premiums set forth in these columns represent the high or low, as applicable, sales price per share for the relevant quarter minus the NAV per common share as of the end of such quarter, and therefore may not reflect the (discount) premium to NAV per common share on the date of the high and low sales prices.

As of November 15, 2013, there were approximately 46 record owners of our common stock. This number does not include stockholders for whom shares are held in “street name.”

Distributions

We currently intend to distribute in the form of cash distributions a minimum of 90.0% of our investment company taxable income, if any, on a quarterly basis to our stockholders in the form of monthly distributions. We intend to retain some or all of our long-term capital gains, but to designate the retained amount as a deemed distribution, after giving effect to any prior year realized losses that are carried forward, to supplement our equity capital and support the growth of our portfolio. However, in certain cases, our Board of Directors may choose to distribute our net realized long-term capital gains by paying a one-time special distribution. Additionally, our Credit Facility contains a covenant that limits payments of distributions to our aggregate net investment income for each of the twelve month periods ending September 30, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016.

Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities and Purchases of Equity Securities

We did not sell any unregistered shares of stock or repurchase any shares of our stock during the fiscal year ended September 30, 2013.

 

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ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following consolidated selected financial data for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010 and 2009 are derived from our audited Consolidated Financial Statements . The other data included in the second table below is unaudited. The data should be read in conjunction with our accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” included elsewhere in this report.

GLADSTONE CAPITAL CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED SELECTED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA

(DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE AND PER UNIT DATA)

 

    As of and for the Year Ended September 30,  
    2013     2012     2011     2010     2009  

Statement of Operations Data:

         

Total Investment Income

  $ 36,154      $ 40,322      $ 35,211      $ 35,539      $ 42,618   

Total Expenses, Net of Credits from Adviser

    17,768        21,278        16,799        17,780        21,587   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Investment Income

    18,386        19,044        18,412        17,759        21,031   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Realized and Unrealized Gain (Loss) on Investments, Borrowings and Other

    13,833        (27,052     (39,511     (1,365     (17,248
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Increase (Decrease) in Net Assets Resulting from Operations

  $ 32,219      $ (8,008   $ (21,099   $ 16,394      $ 3,783   
 

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Per Share Data (A) :

         

Net Increase (Decrease) in Net Assets Resulting from Operations per Common Share—Basic and Diluted

  $ 1.53      $ (0.38   $ (1.00   $ 0.78      $ 0.18   

Net Investment Income per Common Share – Basic and Diluted

    0.88        0.91        0.88        0.84        1.00   

Cash Distributions Declared Per Common Share

    0.84        0.84        0.84        0.84        1.26   

Statement of Assets and Liabilities Data:

         

Total Assets

  $ 295,091      $ 293,402      $ 317,624      $ 270,518      $ 335,910   

Net Assets

    205,992        188,564        213,721        249,246        249,076   

Net Asset Value Per Common Share

    9.81        8.98        10.16        11.85        11.81   

Common Shares Outstanding

    21,000,160        21,000,160        21,039,242        21,039,242        21,087,574   

Weighted Common Shares Outstanding – Basic and Diluted

    21,000,160        21,011,123        21,039,242        21,060,351        21,087,574   

Senior Securities Data:

         

Borrowings under Credit Facility, at cost (B)

  $ 46,900      $ 58,800      $ 99,400      $ 16,800      $ 83,000   

Mandatorily redeemable preferred stock (B)

    38,497        38,497        —          —          —     

Asset coverage ratio (C)

    341     296     315     1,419     396

Asset coverage per unit (D)

  $ 3,410      $ 2,963      $ 3,150      $ 14,187      $ 3,963   

 

(A)   Per share data for net increase (decrease) in net assets resulting from operations is based on the weighted average common stock outstanding for both basic and diluted.
(B)   See “ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ” for more information regarding our level of indebtedness.
(C)   As a BDC, we are generally required to maintain an asset coverage ratio (as defined in Section 18(h) of the 1940 Act) of at least 200% on our Senior Securities. Our mandatorily redeemable preferred stock is a Senior Security that is stock.
(D) Asset coverage per unit is the asset coverage ratio expressed in terms of dollar amounts per one thousand dollars of indebtedness.

 

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    Year Ended September 30,  
    2013     2012     2011     2010     2009  

Other Unaudited Data:

         

Number of Portfolio Companies at Year End

    47        50        59        39        48   

Average Size of Portfolio Company Investment at Cost

  $ 7,069      $ 7,300      $ 6,488      $ 7,654      $ 7,592   

Principal Amount of New Investments

    80,418        45,050        110,903        23,245        24,911   

Proceeds from Loan Repayments and Investments Sold

    117,048        73,857        50,002        85,634        96,693   

Weighted Average Yield on Investments (A)

    11.63     11.25     11.21     11.03     10.05

Total Return (B)

    9.90        41.39        (33.77     37.46        (30.94

 

(A)   Weighted average yield on investments equals interest income on investments divided by the weighted average interest-bearing principal balance throughout the year.
(B)   Total return equals the increase (decrease) of the ending market value over the beginning market value plus monthly distributions divided by the monthly beginning market value.

 

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto contained elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Historical financial condition and results of operations and percentage relationships among any amounts in the financial statements are not necessarily indicative of financial condition or results of operations for any future periods. Except per share amounts, dollar amounts are in thousands unless otherwise indicated.

OVERVIEW

General

We were incorporated under the Maryland General Corporation Law on May 30, 2001. We operate as an externally managed, closed-end, non-diversified management investment company, and have elected to be treated as a business development company (“BDC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”). In addition, for federal income tax purposes we have elected to be treated as a regulated investment company (“RIC”) under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). As a BDC and a RIC, we are subject to certain constraints, including limitations imposed by the 1940 Act and the Code.

We were established for the purpose of investing in debt and equity securities of established private business operating in the United States (“U.S.”). Our investment objectives are to: (1) achieve and grow current income by investing in debt securities of established businesses that we believe will provide stable earnings and cash flow to pay expenses, make principal and interest payments on our outstanding indebtedness and make distributions to stockholders that grow over time; and (2) provide our stockholders with long-term capital appreciation in the value of our assets by investing in equity securities of established businesses that we believe can grow over time to permit us to sell our equity investments for capital gains. To achieve our investment objectives, our investment strategy is to invest in several categories of debt and equity securities, with each investment generally ranging from $5 million to $30 million, although investment size may vary, depending upon our total assets or available capital at the time of investment. We also aim to maintain a portfolio allocation of approximately 95.0% debt investment and 5.0% equity investment, at cost.

We focus on investing in small and medium-sized private businesses in the U.S. that meet certain criteria, including, but not limited to, the following: the potential for growth in cash flow, adequate assets for loan collateral, experienced management teams with a significant ownership interest in the borrower, profitable operations based on the borrower’s cash flow, reasonable capitalization of the borrower (usually by leveraged buyout funds or venture capital funds) and, to a lesser extent, the potential to realize appreciation and gain liquidity in our equity position, if any. We lend to borrowers that need funds to finance growth, restructure their balance sheets or effect a change of control. We invest by ourselves or jointly with other funds and/or management of the portfolio company, depending on the opportunity. If we are participating in an investment with one or more co-investors, our investment is likely to be smaller than if we were investing alone.

In general, our investments in debt securities have a term of no more than seven years, accrue interest at variable rates (based on the London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”)) and, to a lesser extent, at fixed rates. We seek debt instruments that pay interest monthly or, at a minimum, quarterly, have a success fee or deferred interest provision and are primarily interest only with all principal and any accrued but unpaid interest due at maturity. Generally, success fees accrue at a set rate and are contractually due upon a change of control in the business. Some debt securities have deferred interest whereby some portion of the interest payment is added to the principal balance so that the interest is paid, together with the principal, at maturity. This form of deferred interest is often called paid-in-kind (“PIK”) interest.

 

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Typically, our equity investments consist of common stock, preferred stock, limited liability company interests, or warrants to purchase the foregoing. Often, these equity investments occur in connection with our original investment, recapitalizing a business, or refinancing existing debt.

We are externally managed by our investment advisor, Gladstone Management Corporation (the “Adviser”), a Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) registered investment adviser and an affiliate of ours, pursuant to an investment advisory and management agreement (the “Advisory Agreement”). The Adviser manages our investment activities. We have also entered into an administration agreement (the “Administration Agreement”) with Gladstone Administration, LLC (the “Administrator”), an affiliate of ours and the Adviser, whereby we pay separately for administrative services.

Our shares of common stock and term preferred stock are traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market (“NASDAQ”) under the trading symbols “GLAD” and “GLADP,” respectively.

Business Environment

The strength of the global economy and the U.S. economy in particular, continues to be uncertain and volatile. Recently, we experienced the first U.S. government shutdown in 17 years along with a stalemate in the U.S. Congress over whether to raise the debt ceiling. The U.S. government budget concerns remain until early 2014 when the U.S. Congress will revisit the debt ceiling debate again. Prior to this recent U.S. fiscal crisis, economic conditions generally appeared to be improving, albeit slowly, since the 2008 recession. We have continued to remain cautious about a long-term economic recovery. The impacts from the 2008 recession in general, and the resulting disruptions in the capital markets in particular, have had lingering effects on our liquidity options and increased our cost of debt and equity capital. Many of our portfolio companies, as well as those small and medium-sized companies that we evaluate for investment, are still feeling the adverse impacts of these political and economic conditions, and if these conditions persist, it may affect their ability to repay our loans or engage in a liquidity event, such as a sale, recapitalization or initial public offering. These political and economic conditions could also disproportionately impact some of the industries in which we have invested, causing us to be more vulnerable to losses in our portfolio, which could cause the number of our non-performing assets to increase and the fair market value of our portfolio to decrease.

In addition, there has been increased competitive pressure in the BDC and investment company marketplace for senior and senior subordinated debt, resulting in lower yields for increasingly riskier investments. We believe we are in a protracted economic recovery; however, we do not know if market conditions will continue to improve or if adverse conditions will again intensify, and we do not know the full extent to which the inability of the U.S. government to address its fiscal condition in the near and long term will affect us. If market instability persists or intensifies, we may experience difficulty in raising capital. In summary, we believe that are in a protracted economic recovery, but that the recent U.S. fiscal crisis has temporarily suppressed that recovery. We do not know the full extent to which the impact of the lingering recessionary economic conditions will affect us or our portfolio companies.

Portfolio Activity

While conditions remain somewhat challenging in the marketplace, we are seeing a number of new investment opportunities that are consistent with our investment objectives and strategies. During the year ended September 30, 2013, we invested in 15 new proprietary and syndicate investments totaling $80.4 million; however, we experienced a net contraction in our overall portfolio of three portfolio companies, primarily due to 14 portfolio companies paying off early during the year, for an aggregate of $79.6 million in unscheduled payoffs. Subsequent to September 30, 2013, we invested $7.0 million in one new proprietary investment, as discussed under “ Investment Highlights .”

In addition, in July 2012, the SEC granted us an exemptive order that expands our ability to co-invest with certain of our affiliates by permitting us, under certain circumstances, to co-invest with Gladstone Investment Corporation (“Gladstone Investment”) and any future business development company or closed-end management investment company that is advised by the Adviser (or sub-advised by the Adviser if it controls the fund) or any combination of the foregoing subject to the conditions in the SEC’s order. We believe this ability to co-invest will enhance our ability to further our investment objectives and strategies. We co-invested with Gladstone Investment in two new proprietary investments—one in each of May and October 2013, as discussed under “ Investment Highlights .”

 

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Regulatory Compliance

Challenges in the current market are intensified for us by certain regulatory limitations under the Code and the 1940 Act, as well as contractual restrictions under the agreement governing our $137.0 million revolving line of credit (our “Credit Facility,” described more fully under “ Revolving Credit Facility ” below) that further constrain our ability to access the capital markets. To qualify to be taxed as a RIC, we must distribute at least 90.0% of our “investment company taxable income,” which is generally our net ordinary income plus the excess of our net short-term capital gains over net long-term capital losses. Because we are required to satisfy the RIC annual stockholder distribution requirement, and because the illiquidity of many of our investments makes it difficult for us to finance new investments through the sale of current investments, our ability to make new investments is highly dependent upon external financing. Our external financing sources include the issuance of equity securities, debt securities or other leverage, such as borrowings under our Credit Facility. Our ability to seek external debt financing, to the extent that it is available under current market conditions, is further subject to the asset coverage limitations of the 1940 Act that require us to have an asset coverage ratio (as defined in Section 18(h) of the 1940 Act) of at least 200.0% on our senior securities representing indebtedness and our senior securities that are stock, to which we refer collectively as “Senior Securities.”

We believe that market conditions have affected the trading price of our common stock and our ability to finance new investments through the issuance of equity. On November 18, 2013, the closing market price of our common stock was $9.44, a 3.9% discount to our September 30, 2013, net asset value (“NAV”) per share of $9.81. When our stock trades below NAV per common share, as it has consistently traded over the last four years, our ability to issue equity is constrained by provisions of the 1940 Act, which generally prohibits the issuance and sale of our common stock below NAV per common share without stockholder approval, other than through sales to our then-existing stockholders pursuant to a rights offering. At our annual meeting of stockholders held on February 14, 2013, our stockholders approved a proposal which authorizes us to sell shares of our common stock at a price below our then current NAV per common share subject to certain limitations (including, but not limited to, that the number of shares issued and sold pursuant to such authority does not exceed 25.0% of our then outstanding common stock immediately prior to each such sale) for a period of one year from the date of approval, provided that our board of directors (our “Board of Directors”) makes certain determinations prior to any such sale. At the upcoming annual stockholders meeting scheduled for February 13, 2014, our stockholders will again be asked to vote in favor of renewing this proposal for another year.

The current uncertain and volatile economic conditions may also continue to cause the value of the collateral securing some of our loans to fluctuate, as well as the value of our equity investments, which has impacted and may continue to impact our ability to borrow under our Credit Facility. Additionally, our Credit Facility contains covenants regarding the maintenance of certain minimum loan concentrations and net worth, which are affected by the decrease in value of our portfolio. Failure to meet these requirements would result in a default which, if we are unable to obtain a waiver from our lenders, would cause an acceleration of our repayment obligations under our Credit Facility. As of September 30, 2013, we were in compliance with all of our Credit Facility’s covenants.

We expect that, given these regulatory and contractual constraints in combination with current market conditions, debt and equity capital may be costly for us to access in the near term. However, we believe that our recent amendments to our Credit Facility to decrease the interest rate on advances and extend its maturity until 2016 and our ability to co-invest with Gladstone Investment and certain other affiliated investment funds, should increase our ability to make investments in businesses that we believe will be generally resistant to a recession and, as a result, will be likely to achieve attractive long-term returns for our stockholders. See “ Recent Developments ” for more information on these transactions. Going into fiscal 2014, we will continue to focus on building our pipeline and making investments that meet our objectives and strategies and that provide appropriate returns, given the risks.

Investment Highlights

During the year ended September 30, 2013, we invested an aggregate of $80.4 million in 15 new portfolio companies and an aggregate of $9.7 million to existing portfolio companies. Also, during the year ended September 30, 2013, we sold our investments in two portfolio companies for net proceeds of a combined $6.6 million, and we received scheduled and unscheduled contractual principal repayments of a combined $110.5 million from existing portfolio companies, including 14 early payoffs. Since our initial public offering in August 2001, we have made 342 different loans to, or investments in, 172 companies for a total of approximately $1.2 billion, before giving effect to principal repayments on investments and divestitures.

 

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Investment Activity

During the year ended September 30, 2013, we executed the following transactions with certain of our portfolio companies:

Issuances and Originations

During the year ended September 30, 2013, we invested an aggregate of $50.2 million to five new proprietary portfolio companies and an aggregate of $30.2 million in 10 new syndicated portfolio companies (Ardent Medical Services, Inc., Blue Coat Systems Inc., First American Payment Systems, L.P., John Henry Holdings, Inc., New Trident Holdcorp, Inc., RP Crown Parent, LLC, Steinway Musical Instruments, Inc., SumTotal Systems, Inc., Wall Street Systems Holdings, Inc., and W3, Co.). We also invested in additional equity in RBC Acquisition Corp. (“Reliable”) and Midwest Metal Distribution, Inc. (“Midwest Metal”). Below are significant issuances and originations during the year ended September 30, 2013:

 

    In December 2012, we invested $14.0 million in AG Transportation Holdings, LLC (“AG Trucking”) through a combination of senior subordinated term debt and equity. AG Trucking, headquartered in Goshen, Indiana, is a regional food-grade liquid and dry bulk carrier providing a variety of bulk transportation services, including liquid transportation, dry bulk dumps, freight brokering, private fleet conversion and project runs to large international agricultural and food manufacturing firms.

 

    In December 2012, we invested $19.5 million in Allen Edmonds Shoe Corporation (“Allen Edmonds”) through senior subordinated term debt that we purchased from one of Allen Edmonds’ existing lenders. Allen Edmonds, headquartered in Port Washington, Wisconsin, manufactures premium men’s footwear and accessories, which it sells through its retail stores, catalog and internet site and also wholesale and e-commerce channels.

 

    In March 2013, we acquired a controlling equity position in Reliable and invested $2.0 million in additional equity capital in the form of preferred equity. In addition, we invested $0.3 million in preferred equity in August 2013 and an aggregate of $1.1 million in line of credit draws to Reliable during the year ended September 30, 2013. As of September 30, 2013, Reliable was classified as a Control portfolio company. Reliable was known as Reliable Biopharmaceutical Holdings, Inc. before its recapitalization in March 2013 and is therefore included on our accompanying Consolidated Schedule of Investments as of September 30, 2012 under the name Reliable Biopharmaceutical Holdings, Inc.

 

    In May 2013, we invested $8.8 million in Funko, LLC (“Funko”), through a combination of senior subordinated term debt and equity. Funko, headquartered in Lynnwood, WA, is a designer, importer and marketer of pop-culture collectibles. This was our first co-investment with our affiliate fund, Gladstone Investment, pursuant to the aforementioned exemptive order granted by the SEC. Gladstone Investment invested an additional $8.8 million in Funko under the same terms as us.

 

    In July 2013, we invested $8.9 million in Ashland Acquisition, LLC (“Ashland”) through a combination of senior term debt and common equity, where we hold 20.0% of the voting securities. Ashland, through its wholly-owned subsidiary that is headquartered in Ashland, Ohio, provides publishing services including digital and offset printing, warehousing, distribution, and content and marketing services.

Repayments and Exits

During the year ended September 30, 2013, 34 borrowers made principal repayments totaling $110.5 million in the aggregate, consisting of $103.1 million of unscheduled principal and revolver repayments, as well as $7.4 million in contractual principal amortization. Below are significant repayments and exits during the year ended September 30, 2013:

 

    Included in the unscheduled principal payments were the net proceeds at par from early payoffs of the following:

 

    Syndicated investment payoffs: Airvana Network Solutions, Inc. of $0.2 million; Applied Systems, Inc. of $1.0 million; Blue Coat Systems, Inc. of $8.5 million; HGI Holdings, Inc. of $1.6 million; Hubbard Radio, LLC of $0.5 million; John Henry Holdings, Inc. of $5.0; Keypoint Government Solutions, Inc. of $6.4 million; Mood Media Corporation of $8.0 million; National Surgical Hospitals Inc. of $1.6 million; Springs Window Fashions, LLC of $7.0 million; SRAM, LLC of $2.5 million and Wall Street Systems Holdings, Inc. of $3.0 million. In connection with eight of these early payoffs, we received an aggregate of $0.9 million in prepayment fees during the year ended September 30, 2013.

 

    Proprietary investment payoffs: Westlake Hardware, Inc. (“Westlake”) of $20.0 million in December 2012 and CMI Acquisition, LLC (“CMI”) of $14.4 million in September 2013. In relation to the Westlake and CMI early payoffs at par, we received $1.1 million and $0.6 million, respectively, in success fees during the year ended September 30, 2013.

 

43


    In November 2012, we sold our investments in Viapack, Inc. (“Viapack”) for net proceeds of $5.9 million, which resulted in a realized loss of $2.4 million recorded in the three months ended December 31, 2012. Viapack was partially on non-accrual status at the time of the sale.

 

    In November 2012, we wrote off our investment in Access Television Network, Inc. (“Access TV”), which resulted in a realized loss of $0.9 million recorded in the three months ended December 31, 2012. Access TV was on non-accrual status at the time of the write off.

 

    In April 2013, we sold our investment in Kansas Cable Holdings, Inc. (“KCH”) for net proceeds of $0.6 million, which resulted in a realized loss of $2.9 million recorded in the three months ended June 30, 2013. KCH was on non-accrual status at the time of the sale.

 

    In September 2013, we sold substantially all of the assets in Lindmark Acquisition, LLC (“Lindmark”) for net proceeds of $14.4 million, which paid down our debt investments in full at par. Lindmark was on non-accrual status at the time of the repayment.

Refer to Note 16— Subsequent Events in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for investment activity occurring subsequent to September 30, 2013. Of note, the following significant new origination occurred subsequent to September 30, 2013:

 

    In October 2013, we invested $7.0 million in Alloy Die Casting Co. (“ADC”) through a combination of senior term debt and equity. ADC, headquartered in Buena Park, CA, is a manufacturer of high quality, finished aluminum and zinc castings for aerospace, defense, aftermarket automotive and industrial applications. This was a co-investment with Gladstone Investment, which invested an additional $16.3 million in ADC under the same terms as us.

Recent Developments

Notes Receivable from Employees

In July 2013, we received $1.0 million in full repayment of the outstanding principal and accrued interest owed on our employee note receivable from our chairman, chief executive officer and president, David Gladstone. Simultaneously, Mr. Gladstone’s related redemption agreement was terminated pursuant to its terms.

Amendment of Credit Facility

On April 26, 2013, we, through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Gladstone Business Loan, LLC (“Business Loan”), entered into Amendment No. 6 to our Credit Facility to extend the maturity date for one year to January 19, 2016. We incurred fees of $0.7 million in April 2013 in connection with this amendment, which are being amortized through the maturity date of our Credit Facility. All other terms of our Credit Facility remained generally unchanged at the time of this amendment.

On January 29, 2013, we, through Business Loan, entered into Amendment No. 4 to our Credit Facility to remove the one month London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”) minimum of 1.5% on advances. We incurred fees of $0.6 million in January 2013 in connection with this amendment, which are being amortized through the maturity date of our Credit Facility. All other terms of our Credit Facility remained generally unchanged at the time of this amendment.

Registration Statement

On November 29, 2012, we filed a universal shelf registration statement (our “Registration Statement”) on Form N-2 (File No. 333-185191) that was amended on January 17, 2013, and which the SEC declared effective on January 18, 2013. Our Registration Statement permits us to issue, through one or more transactions, up to an aggregate of $300.0 million in securities, consisting of common stock, preferred stock, subscription rights, debt securities and warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, including through a combined offering of such securities. We have not issued any securities to date under our Registration Statement.

 

44


Executive Officers

On April 9, 2013, our Board of Directors appointed Melissa Morrison, the Company’s then current chief accounting officer, as chief financial officer. Concurrently, David Watson resigned as the chief financial officer of the Company to focus on his position as the Company’s treasurer and on his position as chief financial officer and treasurer for Gladstone Investment, an affiliate of the Company.

On February 5, 2013, our Board of Directors appointed David Gladstone as the Company’s interim president to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of George Stelljes III, effective January 31, 2013, the Company’s former president, chief investment officer and a director. Mr. Gladstone will hold this position until our Board of Directors finds a suitable replacement. Mr. Gladstone founded the Company and has also served as the chairman of our Board of Directors and the Company’s chief executive officer since its inception in 2001.

RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Comparison of the Year Ended September 30, 2013 to the Year Ended September 30, 2012

 

     For the Year Ended September 30,  
     2013     2012     $ Change     %Change  

INVESTMENT INCOME

        

Interest income

   $ 33,533      $ 36,077      $ (2,544     (7.1 )% 

Other income

     2,621        4,245        (1,624     (38.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total investment income

     36,154        40,322        (4,168     (10.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EXPENSES

        

Base management fee

     5,622        6,165        (543     (8.8

Incentive fee

     4,343        4,691        (348     (7.4

Administration fee

     647        753        (106     (14.1

Interest expense on borrowings

     3,182        4,374        (1,192     (27.3

Dividend expense on mandatorily redeemable preferred stock

     2,744        2,491        253        10.2   

Amortization of deferred financing fees

     1,211        1,243        (32     (2.6

Other expenses

     1,540        2,609        (1,069     (41.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Expenses before credits from Adviser

     19,289        22,326        (3,037     (13.6

Credits to fees from Adviser

     (1,521     (1,048     (473     (45.1
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total expenses net of credits

     17,768        21,278        (3,510     (16.5
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

NET INVESTMENT INCOME

     18,386        19,044        (658     (3.5
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

REALIZED AND UNREALIZED GAIN (LOSS)

        

Net realized loss on investments

     (5,231     (12,819     7,588        59.2   

Net unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of investments

     15,673        (11,194     26,867        NM   

Net unrealized depreciation (appreciation) of other

     3,391        (3,039     6,430        NM   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net gain (loss) from investments and other

     13,833        (27,052     40,885        151.1   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

NET INCREASE (DECREASE) IN NET ASSETS RESULTING FROM OPERATIONS

   $ 32,219      $ (8,008   $ 40,227        NM   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

PER BASIC AND DILUTED COMMON SHARE

        

Net investment income

   $ 0.88      $ 0.91      $ (0.03     (3.3
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net increase (decrease) in net assets resulting from operations

   $ 1.53      $ (0.38   $ 1.91        NM   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

NM = Not Meaningful

Investment Income

Total interest income decreased by 7.1%, which was driven by a decrease of $2.4 million or 6.7% on interest income on our investments in debt securities for the year ended September 30, 2013, as compared to the year ended September 30, 2012. This was primarily due to the increase in early payoffs at par during the year, partially offset by an increase in our weighted average yield on our interest-bearing investment portfolio. The level of interest income on our investments is directly related to the principal balance of our interest-bearing investment portfolio during the year, multiplied by the weighted average yield. The weighted average principal balance of our interest-bearing investment portfolio during the year ended September 30, 2013, was $287.3 million, compared to $317.5 million for the prior year, a decrease of $30.2 million or 9.5%. The weighted

 

45


average yield on the principal balance of our interest-bearing investments for the year ended September 30, 2013, was 11.6%, as compared to 11.3% for the prior year. The weighted average yield on our portfolio increased during the year ended September 30, 2013, as compared to the prior year, due to the purchase of higher yielding new proprietary investments coupled with the early payoffs of 12 of our syndicated investments, which generally bear lower interest rates than our proprietary investments.

As of September 30, 2013, two portfolio companies were on non-accrual status with an aggregate debt cost basis of approximately $39.5 million, or 12.6% of the cost basis of all debt investments in our portfolio. As of September 30, 2012, six portfolio companies were either fully or partially on non-accrual status with an aggregate debt cost basis of approximately $61.1 million, or 17.3% of the cost basis of all debt investments in our portfolio. During the year ended September 30, 2013, we sold our investments in two portfolio companies that had been on non-accrual status, wrote off our investment in one portfolio company that had been on non-accrual status, and sold substantially all of the assets of one portfolio company that had been on non-accrual status. See “ Overview – Investment Highlights ” for more information. There were no portfolio companies that changed from accrual status to non-accrual during the year ended September 30, 2013.

Other income for the years ended September 30, 2013 and 2012, consisted primarily of success fees, which we generally recognize when payment is received. During the year ended September 30, 2013, we received an aggregate of $1.7 million in success fees, which resulted from the early payoffs at par of Westlake for $1.1 million in December 2012 and CMI for $0.6 million in September 2013. In addition, we received prepayment fees in the aggregate of $0.9 million during the year ended September 30, 2013, which resulted from the early payoffs of eight of our syndicate investments at par during the year. During the year ended September 30, 2012, we received an aggregate of $4.0 million in success fees, which resulted from the early payoffs at par of Winchester Electronics (“Winchester”) for $1.2 million, Global Materials Technologies (“GMT”) for $1.1 million, RCS Management Holding Co. (“RCS”) for $0.9 million and Northern Contours, Inc. (“Northern Contours”) for $0.8 million. In addition, we received prepayment fees in the aggregate of $0.2 million during the year ended September 30, 2012, which resulted from the early payoffs of five of our syndicate investments at par during the year.

The following tables list the investment income for our five largest portfolio company investments at fair value during the respective years:

 

     As of September 30, 2013     Year Ended September 30, 2013  

Portfolio Company

   Fair Value      % of Portfolio     Investment
Income
     % of Total
Investment
Income
 

RBC Acquisition Corp.

   $ 30,991         12.1   $ 2,416         6.7

Allen Edmonds Shoe Corporation (A)

     19,604         7.6        1,717         4.8   

Midwest Metal Distribution, Inc.

     17,733         6.9        2,240         6.2   

Francis Drilling Fluids, Ltd.

     14,667         5.7        1,977         5.4   

AG Transportation Holdings, LLC (A)

     12,984         5.1        1,407         3.9   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Subtotal—five largest investments

     95,979         37.4        9,757         27.0   

Other portfolio companies

     160,899         62.6        26,265         72.6   

Other non-portfolio company income

     —           —          132         0.4   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total investment portfolio

   $ 256,878         100.0   $ 36,154         100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 
     As of September 30, 2012     Year Ended September 30, 2012  

Portfolio Company

   Fair Value      % of Portfolio     Investment
Income
     % of Total
Investment
Income
 

Reliable Biopharmaceutical Holdings, Inc.

   $ 25,439         9.3   $ 3,193         7.9

Westlake Hardware, Inc. (B)

     19,360         7.1        2,592         6.4   

Midwest Metal Distribution, Inc.

     17,824         6.5        2,249         5.6   

Francis Drilling Fluids, Ltd. (C)

     15,385         5.6        750         1.9   

CMI Acquisition, LLC (D)

     13,766         5.0        2,021         5.0   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Subtotal—five largest investments

     91,774         33.5        10,805         26.8   

Other portfolio companies

     182,186         66.5        29,257         72.6   

Other non-portfolio company income

     —           —          260         0.6   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total investment portfolio

   $ 273,960         100.0   $ 40,322         100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(A)   New investment added in December 2012
(B)   Investment exited in December 2012.
(C) New investment added in May 2012.
(D) Investment exited in September 2013.

 

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Operating Expenses

Operating expenses, net of credits from the Adviser, decreased for the year ended September 30, 2013, by $3.5 million, or 16.5%, as compared to the year ended September 30, 2012. This decrease was primarily due to a decrease in interest expense on our Credit Facility, other expenses and incentive fees, partially offset by an increase in dividend expense on our Term Preferred Stock.

Interest expense decreased by $1.2 million for the year ended September 30, 2013, as compared to the prior year, due primarily to decreased borrowings under our Credit Facility, resulting from a net contraction in the size of our portfolio. The weighted average balance outstanding on our Credit Facility during the year ended September 30, 2013 was approximately $53.2 million, as compared to $72.2 million in the prior year, a decrease of 26.3%. Additionally, the decrease in interest expense for the year ended September 30, 2013, as compared the prior year, was due to the January 2013 amendment of our Credit Facility to remove the LIBOR minimum of 1.5% on advances.

Other expenses decreased $1.1 million for the year ended September 30, 2013, as compared to the prior year, primarily due to the receipt of certain reimbursable deal expenses in the current year, as well as a decrease in legal expenses incurred in connection with troubled loans during the year ended September 30, 2013, as compared to the year ended September 30, 2012.

The decrease of $1.1 million in net incentive fees earned by the Adviser during the year ended September 30, 2013, as compared to the prior year, was primarily due to the increase in the incentive fee waiver in the current year. Incentive fees were earned by the Adviser during the year ended September 30, 2013 and 2012; however, the incentive fees were partially waived by the Adviser to ensure distributions to stockholders were covered entirely by net investment income during both years.

The base management fee, incentive fee and associated credits are computed quarterly, as described under “ Investment Advisory and Management Agreement ” in Note 4 of the notes to our accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and are summarized in the table below:

 

     Year Ended September 30,  
     2013     2012  

Average total assets subject to base management fee (A)

   $ 281,100      $ 308,250   

Multiplied by annual base management fee of 2%

     2.0     2.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Base management fee (B)

     5,622        6,165   

Credit for fees received by Adviser from the portfolio companies

     (324     (342

Fee reduction for the voluntary, irrevocable waiver of 2% fee on senior syndicated loans to 0.5% per annum

     (183     (428
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Base Management Fee

   $ 5,115      $ 5,395   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Incentive fee (B)

   $ 4,343      $ 4,691   

Credit from voluntary, irrevocable waiver issued by Adviser’s board of directors

     (1,014     (278
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Incentive Fee

   $ 3,329      $ 4,413   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Credit for fees received by Adviser from the portfolio companies

   $ (324   $ (342

Fee reduction for the voluntary, irrevocable waiver of 2% fee on senior syndicated loans to 0.5% per annum

     (183     (428

Credit from voluntary, irrevocable waiver issued by Adviser’s board of directors

     (1,014     (278
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Credits to Fees from Adviser (B)

   $ (1,521   $ (1,048
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(A)   Average total assets subject to the base management fee is defined as total assets, including investments made with proceeds of borrowings, less any uninvested cash or cash equivalents resulting from borrowings, valued at the end of the four most recently completed quarters within the respective years and appropriately adjusted for any share issuances or repurchases during the applicable year.
(B)   Reflected, in total, as a line item on our accompanying Consolidated Statement of Operations located elsewhere in this report.

 

47


Realized Loss and Unrealized Appreciation (Depreciation) on Investments

Realized Losses

For the year ended September 30, 2013, we recorded a net realized loss on investments of $5.2 million, which primarily consisted of realized losses of $2.9 million related to the sale of KCH, $2.4 million related to the sale of Viapack and $0.9 million related to the write off of Access TV. These realized losses were partially offset by realized gains of $1.0 million, which consisted of a combined $0.5 million of escrowed proceeds and tax refunds received in connection with exits on two investments in fiscal year 2012 and an aggregate of $0.5 million of unamortized discounts related to the early payoffs at par of 12 syndicated investments during the year.

For the year ended September 30, 2012, we recorded a net realized loss on investments of $12.8 million, which primarily consisted of realized losses of $7.4 million related to the sale of Newhall Holdings Inc. (“Newhall”), $1.0 million related to the restructure of KMBQ Corporation (“KMBQ”), $1.8 million related to the sale of BERTL, Inc. (“BERTL”) and $3.2 million related to the sale of U.S. Healthcare (“USHC”). These realized losses were partially offset by realized gains of $0.5 million, which consisted of a combined $0.2 million of escrowed proceeds received in connection with exits on two investments in each of fiscal year 2012 and 2010 and an aggregate of $0.3 million of unamortized discounts related to the early payoffs at par of 8 syndicated investments during the year.

Net Unrealized Appreciation (Depreciation)

Net unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of investments is the net change in the fair value of our investment portfolio during the year, including the reversal of previously recorded unrealized appreciation or depreciation when gains and losses are actually realized. During the year ended September 30, 2013, we recorded net unrealized appreciation of investments in the aggregate amount of $15.7 million, which included the reversal of an aggregate of $26.0 million in combined unrealized depreciation primarily related to the repayment of principal in full at par on Lindmark, the sales of Viapack and KCH, and the write off of Access TV. Excluding reversals, we recorded $10.4 million in net unrealized depreciation for the year ended September 30, 2013. Over our entire portfolio, the net unrealized depreciation (excluding reversals) consisted of approximately $5.3 million of depreciation on our debt investments and approximately $5.1 million of depreciation on our equity investments for the year ended September 30, 2013.

The net realized (losses) gains and unrealized (depreciation) appreciation across our investments for the year ended September 30, 2013, were as follows:

 

     Year Ended September 30, 2013  

Portfolio Company

   Realized (Loss)
Gain
    Unrealized
(Depreciation)
Appreciation
    Reversal of
Unrealized
Depreciation
(Appreciation)
     Net Gain
(Loss)
 

Lindmark Acquisition, LLC

   $ —        $ (224   $ 14,006       $ 13,782   

Viapack, Inc.

     (2,407     —          6,660         4,253   

RBC Acquisition Corp.

     —          2,159        —           2,159   

Sunshine Media Holdings

     —          1,632        —           1,632   

Westlake Hardware, Inc.

     —          —          640         640   

GFRC Holdings, LLC

     —          572        —           572   

North American Aircraft Services LLC

     —          505        8         513   

CMI Acquisition, LLC

     —          (927     1,426         499   

Kansas Cable Holdings, Inc.

     (2,906     401        2,922         417   

Funko

     —          396        —           396   

FedCap Partners, LLC

     —          384        —           384   

Allison Publications, LLC

     —          265        —           265   

Access Television Network, Inc.

     (872     —          903         31   

Saunders & Associates

     —          (296     —           (296

WP Evenflo Group Holdings, Inc.

     —          (443     3         (440

Francis Drilling Fluids, Ltd.

     —          (718     —           (718

Westland Technologies, Inc.

     —          (825     —           (825

 

48


Targus Group International, Inc.

     —          (881       (881

Heartland Communications Group

     —          (951     —          (951

AG Transportation Holdings, LLC

     —          (1,078     —          (1,078

Precision Acquisition Group Holdings, Inc.

     —          (1,193     —          (1,193

LocalTel, LLC

     —          (1,209     —          (1,209

BAS Broadcasting

     —          (1,493     —          (1,493

Legend Communications of Wyoming, LLC

     —          (1,557     —          (1,557

Sunburst Media – Louisiana, LLC

     —          (1,650     —          (1,650

Midwest Metal Distribution, Inc.

     —          (2,101     —          (2,101

Defiance Integrated Technologies, Inc.

     —          (2,246     —          (2,246

Other, net (<$250)

     954        1,123        (540     1,537   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total:

   $ (5,231   $ (10,355   $ 26,028      $ 10,442   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The largest driver of our net unrealized appreciation for the year ended September 30, 2013, was the reversal of unrealized depreciation on Lindmark of $14.0 million, due to the repayment of principal in full at par on the outstanding debt. Additionally there were reversals of unrealized depreciation of $6.7 million on Viapack and $2.9 million on KCH, each of which were related to our exits in these companies during the year. Excluding reversals, there was unrealized appreciation on Reliable of $2.2 million and Sunshine Media Holdings (“Sunshine”) of $1.6 million during the year ended September 30, 2013, due to an incremental improvement in the financial and operational performance of these portfolio companies. This appreciation was partially offset by unrealized depreciation of $2.2 million on Defiance Integrated Technologies, Inc. (“Defiance”) and $2.1 million on Midwest Metal, due to a decline in these portfolio companies’ financial and operation performance.

During the year ended September 30, 2012, we recorded net unrealized depreciation of investments in the aggregate amount of $11.2 million, which included the reversal of an aggregate of $17.0 million in combined unrealized depreciation primarily related to the sales of Newhall, USHC and BERTL and the restructure of KMBQ. Excluding reversals, we recorded $28.2 million in net unrealized depreciation for the year ended September 30, 2012. Over our entire portfolio, the net unrealized depreciation consisted of approximately $21.8 million on our debt investments and approximately $6.4 million of depreciation on our equity investments for the year ended September 30, 2012.

The net realized (losses) gains and unrealized appreciation (depreciation) across our investments for the year ended September 30, 2012, were as follows:

 

     Year Ended September 30, 2012  

Portfolio Company

   Realized (Loss)
Gain
    Unrealized
Appreciation
(Depreciation)
    Reversal of
Unrealized
Depreciation
     Net Gain
(Loss)
 

Newhall Holdings, Inc.

   $ (7,327   $ —        $ 9,978       $ 2,651   

FedCap Partners, LLC

     —          1,010        —           1,010   

Midwest Metal Distribution, Inc.

     —          630        —           630   

Mood Media Corporation

     —          622        —           622   

Northern Contours, Inc.

     —          —          444         444   

Global Materials Technologies, Inc.

     —          422        —           422   

Vision Solutions, Inc.

     —          374        —           374   

Keypoint Government Solutions, Inc.

     —          271        —           271   

Allison Publications, LLC

     —          264        —           264   

RCS Management Holding Company

     —          (81     306         225   

KMBQ Corporation

     (1,044     —          1,135         91   

US Healthcare Communications, LLC

     (3,173     —          3,189         16   

BERTL, Inc.

     (1,771     (4     1,782         7   

CMI Acquisitions, LLC

     —          (571     —           (571

Francis Drilling Fluids, Ltd.

     —          (614     —           (614

Kansas Cable Holdings, Inc.

     —          (658     —           (658

LocalTel, LLC

     —          (962     —           (962

Precision Acquisition Group Holdings, Inc.

     —          (1,078     —           (1,078

Saunders & Associates

     —          (1,150     —           (1,150

Reliable Pharmaceutical Holdings, Inc.

     —          (1,344     —           (1,344

International Junior Golf Training Acquisition Company

     —          (1,415     —           (1,415

Sunburst Media – Louisiana, LLC

     —          (1,612     —           (1,612

Lindmark Acquisition, LLC

     —          (1,739     —           (1,739

 

49


Viapack, Inc.

     —          (1,760     —           (1,760

Defiance Integrated Technologies, Inc.

     —          (3,422     —           (3,422

GFRC Holdings, LLC

     —          (3,845     —           (3,845

BAS Broadcasting

     —          (4,367     —           (4,367

Sunshine Media Holdings

     —          (7,847     —           (7,847

Other, net (<$250)

     496        682        166         1,344   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total:

   $ (12,819   $ (28,194   $ 17,000       $ (24,013
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

The largest drivers of our net unrealized depreciation for the year ended September 30, 2012, were the unrealized depreciation of Sunshine of $7.8 million, BAS Broadcasting (“BAS”) of $4.4 million, GFRC Holdings, LLC (“GFRC”) of $3.8 million and Defiance of $3.4 million, all primarily due to a decline in the financial and operational performance of these portfolio companies. Of note, Sunshine was put on non-accrual status during the year ended September 30, 2012.

As of September 30, 2013, the fair value of our investment portfolio was less than its cost basis by approximately $75.4 million and our entire investment portfolio was valued at 77.3% of cost, as compared to cumulative net unrealized depreciation of $91.1 million and a valuation of our entire portfolio at 75.0% of cost as of September 30, 2012. This decrease year over year in the cumulative unrealized depreciation on investments represents net unrealized appreciation of $15.7 million for the year ended September 30, 2013. Of our current investment portfolio, 16 portfolio companies originated before December 31, 2007, which represented 46.5% of the entire cost basis of our portfolio, were valued at 61.5% of cost and included our two investments that were on non-accrual status. Our 31 portfolio companies that originated after December 31, 2007, representing 53.5% of the entire cost basis of our portfolio, were valued at 91.0% of cost and none of which were on non-accrual status.

We believe that our aggregate investment portfolio was valued at a depreciated value as of September 30, 2013, primarily due to the lingering effects of the recession that began in 2008 and its affect on the performance of certain of our portfolio companies and also because we were invested in certain industries that have been disproportionately impacted by the recession. The cumulative net unrealized depreciation of our investments does not have an impact on our current ability to pay distributions to stockholders; however, it may be an indication of future realized losses, which could ultimately reduce our income available for distribution to stockholders.

Net Unrealized Depreciation (Appreciation) of Other

Net unrealized depreciation (appreciation) of other includes the net change in the fair value of our Credit Facility and our interest rate swap during the year, including the reversal of previously recorded unrealized appreciation or depreciation when gains and losses are realized. During the year ended September 30, 2013, we recorded a net unrealized depreciation of other of $3.4 million, compared to a net unrealized appreciation of $3.0 million for the year ended September 30, 2012. Our Credit Facility was fair valued at $47.1 million and $62.5 million as of September 30, 2013 and 2012, respectively. The interest rate swap was fair valued at $4 as of September 30, 2013 and there was no interest rate swap outstanding during the year ended September 30, 2012.

 

50


Comparison of the Year Ended September 30, 2012 to the Year Ended September 30, 2011

 

     For the Year Ended September 30,  
     2012     2011     $ Change     %Change  

INVESTMENT INCOME

        

Interest income

   $ 36,077      $ 33,068      $ 3,009        9.1

Other income

     4,245        2,143        2,102        98.1   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total investment income

     40,322        35,211        5,111        14.5   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

EXPENSES

        

Base management fee

     6,165        5,731        434        7.6   

Incentive fee

     4,691        4,598        93        2.0   

Administration fee

     753        729        24        3.3   

Interest expense on borrowings

     4,374        2,676        1,698        63.5   

Dividend expense on mandatorily redeemable preferred stock

     2,491        —          2,491        100.0   

Amortization of deferred financing fees

     1,243        1,420        (177     (12.5

Other expenses

     2,609        2,288        321        14.0   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Expenses before credits from Adviser

     22,326        17,442        4,884        28.0   

Credits to fees from Adviser

     (1,048     (643     (405     (63.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total expenses net of credits

     21,278        16,799        4,479        26.7   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

NET INVESTMENT INCOME

     19,044        18,412        632        3.4   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

REALIZED AND UNREALIZED LOSS

        

Net realized loss on investments

     (12,819     (1,280     (11,539     (901.5

Net unrealized depreciation of investments

     (11,194     (38,759     27,565        71.1   

Net unrealized (appreciation) depreciation of borrowings

     (3,039     528        (3,567     NM   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net loss from investments and borrowings

     (27,052     (39,511     12,459        31.5   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

NET DECREASE IN NET ASSETS RESULTING FROM OPERATIONS

   $ (8,008   $ (21,099   $ 13,091        62.0   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

PER BASIC AND DILUTED COMMON SHARE

        

Net investment income

   $ 0.91      $ 0.88      $ 0.03        3.4   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net decrease in net assets resulting from operations

   $ (0.38   $ (1.00   $ 0.62        62.0   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

NM = Not Meaningful

Investment Income

Total interest income increased by 9.1%, which was driven by an increase of $3.2 million, or 9.7% on interest income on our investments in debt securities, for the year ended September 30, 2012, as compared to the year ended September 30, 2011. This was primarily due to the increased investment activity during the second half of fiscal year 2011, offset by several early payoffs of investments in 2012 and a slight decrease in our weighted average yield in 2012, as compared to 2011. The increase in investment activity in 2011 was primarily in syndicated investments. The level of interest income on investments is directly related to the principal balance of our interest-bearing investment portfolio during the year, multiplied by the weighted average yield. The weighted average principal balance of our interest-bearing investment portfolio during the year ended September 30, 2012, was $317.5 million, compared to $291.2 million for the prior year, an increase of $26.3 million or

 

51


9.0%. The weighted average yield on the principal balance of our interest-bearing investments for the year ended September 30, 2012, was 11.3%, as compared to 11.2% for the prior year. The weighted average yield on our portfolio increased slightly during the year ended September 30, 2012, as compared to the prior year, due to the early payoffs of several syndicated investments.

As of September 30, 2012, six portfolio companies were either fully or partially on non-accrual status with an aggregate debt cost basis of approximately $61.1 million, or 17.3% of the cost basis of all debt investments in our portfolio. As of September 30, 2011, eight portfolio companies were on non-accrual status with an aggregate debt cost basis of approximately $41.1 million, or 11.0% of the cost basis of all debt investments in our portfolio. During the year ended September 30, 2012, we sold our investments in two portfolio companies that had been on non-accrual status. There were no new non-accruals added during the year ended September 30, 2012.

Other income for the years ended September 30, 2012 and 2011, consisted primarily of success fees, which we generally recognize when payment is received. During the year ended September 30, 2012, we received an aggregate of $4.0 million in success fees, which resulted from the early payoffs at par of Winchester for $1.2 million, GMT for $1.1 million, RCS for $0.9 million and Northern Contours for $0.8 million. In addition, we received prepayment fees in the aggregate of $0.2 million during the year ended September 30, 2012, which resulted from the early payoffs of five of our syndicate investments at par during the year.

During the year ended September 30, 2011, we received an aggregate of $1.0 million of success fees, which resulted from the early payoffs at par of Interfilm Holdings, Inc. (“Interfilm”) for $0.1 million and Pinnacle Treatment Centers, Inc. (“Pinnacle”) for $0.5 million and also a prepaid success fee of $0.4 million from Westlake. In addition, we received an aggregate of $1.0 million from two legal settlements related to portfolio companies, which was recorded in other income during the year ended September 30, 2011.

The following tables list the investment income for our five largest portfolio company investments at fair value during the respective years:

 

     As of September 30, 2012     Year Ended September 30, 2012  

Portfolio Company

   Fair Value      % of Portfolio     Investment
Income
     % of Total
Investment
Income
 

Reliable Biopharmaceutical Holdings, Inc.

   $ 25,439         9.3   $ 3,193         7.9

Westlake Hardware, Inc. (A)

     19,360         7.1        2,592         6.4   

Midwest Metal Distribution, Inc.

     17,824         6.5        2,249         5.6   

Francis Drilling Fluids, Ltd. (B)

     15,385         5.6        750         1.9   

CMI Acquisition, LLC (C)

     13,766         5.0        2,021         5.0   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Subtotal—five largest investments

     91,774         33.5        10,805         26.8   

Other portfolio companies

     182,186         66.5        29,257         72.6   

Other non-portfolio company income

     —           —          260         0.6   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total investment portfolio

   $ 273,960         100.0   $ 40,322         100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 
     As of September 30, 2011     Year Ended September 30, 2011  

Portfolio Company

   Fair Value      % of Portfolio     Investment
Income
     % of Total
Investment
Income
 

Reliable Biopharmaceutical Holdings, Inc.

   $ 25,295         8.3   $ 3,090         8.8

Westlake Hardware, Inc. (A)

     19,340         6.4        2,935         8.3   

Midwest Metal Distribution, Inc.

     17,184         5.7        2,242         6.4   

Defiance Integrated Technologies, Inc.

     15,039         5.0        888         2.5   

CMI Acquisition, LLC (C)

     14,336         4.7        1,038         3.0   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Subtotal—five largest investments

     91,194         30.1        10,193         29.0   

Other portfolio companies

     211,753         69.9        24,586         69.8   

Other non-portfolio company income

     —           —          432         1.2   
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total investment portfolio

   $ 302,947         100.0   $ 35,211         100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(A)   Investment exited in December 2012.
(B) New investment added in May 2012.
(C) Investment exited in September 2013.

 

52


Operating Expenses

Operating expenses, net of credits from the Adviser, increased for the year ended September 30, 2012, by $4.5 million, or 26.7%, as compared to the year ended September 30, 2011. This increase was primarily due to increases in dividend expense on our Term Preferred Stock, interest expense on our Credit Facility and other expenses, partially offset by the decrease in the net incentive fees.

During the year ended September 30, 2012, we paid $2.5 million of dividends on our Term Preferred Stock. We classify these dividends as dividend expense on our accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations . There was no preferred stock dividends paid in the year ended September 30, 2011, as our Term Preferred Stock offering occurred in November 2011.

Interest expense increased by $1.7 million for the year ended September 30, 2012, as compared to the prior year, due primarily to increased borrowings under our Credit Facility to facilitate the increased investment activity during the year. The weighted average balance outstanding on our Credit Facility during the year ended September 30, 2012, was approximately $72.2 million, as compared to $49.2 million in the prior year, an increase of 46.7%.

Other expenses increased by $0.3 million during the year ended September 30, 2012, as compared to the prior year, primarily due to expenses of $0.2 million being recognized for the termination of an equity distribution agreement, discussed in detail under “Liquidity and Capital Resources Equity ” further below and also due to increases in bad debt expense related to receivables from certain portfolio companies.

The decrease of $0.2 million in net incentive fees earned by the Adviser during the years ended September 30, 2012, as compared to the prior year, was due primarily to the increase in the incentive fee waiver in the 2012 fiscal year. Incentive fees were earned by the Adviser during the years ended September 30, 2013 and 2012; however, the incentive fees were partially waived by the Adviser to ensure distributions to stockholders were covered entirely by net investment income during both years.

The base management fee, incentive fee and associated credits are computed quarterly as described under “ Investment Advisory and Management Agreement ” in Note 4 of the notes to our accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and are summarized in the table below:

 

     Year Ended September 30,  
     2012     2011  

Average total assets subject to base management fee (A)

   $ 308,250      $ 286,550   

Multiplied by annual base management fee of 2.0%

     2.0     2.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Base management fee (B)

     6,165        5,731   

Fee reduction for the voluntary, irrevocable waiver of 2.0% fee on senior syndicated loans to 0.5% per annum

     (428     (383

Credit for fees received by Adviser from the portfolio companies

     (342     (239
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Base Management Fee

   $ 5,395      $ 5,109   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Incentive fee (B)

   $ 4,691      $ 4,598   

Credit from voluntary, irrevocable waiver issued by Adviser’s board of directors

     (278     (21
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Incentive Fee

   $ 4,413      $ 4,577   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Fee reduction for the voluntary, irrevocable waiver of 2.0% fee on senior syndicated loans to 0.5% per annum

   $ (428   $ (383

Credit for fees received by Adviser from portfolio companies

     (342     (239

Credit from voluntary, irrevocable waiver issued by Adviser’s board of directors

     (278     (21
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Credits to Fees from Adviser (B)

   $ (1,048   $ (643
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(A)   Average total assets subject to the base management fee is defined as total assets, including investments made with proceeds of borrowings, less any uninvested cash or cash equivalents resulting from borrowings, valued at the end of the four most recently completed quarters within the respective years and appropriately adjusted for any share issuances or repurchases during the applicable year.
(B)   Reflected, in total, as a line item on our accompanying Consolidated Statement of Operations located elsewhere in this report.

 

53


Realized Loss and Unrealized Depreciation on Investments

Realized Losses

For the year ended September 30, 2012, we recorded a net realized loss on investments of $12.8 million, which primarily consisted of realized losses of $7.4 million related to the sale of Newhall, $1.0 million related to the restructure of KMBQ, $1.8 million related to the sale of BERTL and $3.2 million related to the sale of USHC. These realized losses were partially offset by realized gains of $0.5 million, which consisted of a combined $0.2 million of escrowed proceeds received in connection with exits on two investments in each of fiscal year 2012 and 2010 and an aggregate of $0.3 million of unamortized discounts related to the early payoffs at par of eight syndicated investments during the year.

For the year ended September 30, 2011, we recorded a net realized loss on investments of $1.3 million, which related primarily to the realized loss on the restructuring of our loans to SCI Cable, Inc. (“SCI”), which resulted in a new Control portfolio company, KCH.

Net Unrealized Depreciation

Net unrealized depreciation of investments is the net change in the fair value of our investment portfolio during the year, including the reversal of previously recorded unrealized appreciation or depreciation when gains and losses are actually realized. During the year ended September 30, 2012, we recorded net unrealized depreciation of investments in the aggregate amount of $11.2 million, which included the reversal of an aggregate of $17.0 million in combined unrealized depreciation primarily related to the sales of Newhall, USHC and BERTL and the restructure of KMBQ. Excluding reversals, we recorded $28.2 million in net unrealized depreciation for the year ended September 30, 2012. Over our entire portfolio, the net unrealized depreciation consisted of approximately $21.8 million on our debt investments and approximately $6.4 million of depreciation on our equity investments for the year ended September 30, 2012.

The net realized (losses) gains and unrealized appreciation (depreciation) across our investments for the year ended September 30, 2012, were as follows:

 

     Year Ended September 30, 2012  

Portfolio Company

   Realized (Loss)
Gain
    Unrealized
Appreciation
(Depreciation)
    Reversal of
Unrealized
Depreciation
     Net Gain
(Loss)
 

Newhall Holdings, Inc.

   $ (7,327   $ —        $ 9,978       $ 2,651   

FedCap Partners, LLC

     —          1,010        —           1,010   

Midwest Metal Distribution, Inc.

     —          630        —           630   

Mood Media Corporation

     —          622        —           622   

Northern Contours, Inc.

     —          —          444         444   

Global Materials Technologies, Inc.

     —          422        —           422   

Vision Solutions, Inc.

     —          374        —           374   

Keypoint Government Solutions, Inc.

     —          271        —           271   

Allison Publications, LLC

     —          264        —           264   

RCS Management Holding Company

     —          (81     306         225   

KMBQ Corporation

     (1,044     —          1,135         91   

US Healthcare Communications, LLC

     (3,173     —          3,189         16   

BERTL, Inc.

     (1,771     (4     1,782         7   

CMI Acquisitions, LLC

     —          (571     —           (571

Francis Drilling Fluids, Ltd.

     —          (614     —           (614

Kansas Cable Holdings, Inc.

     —          (658     —           (658

LocalTel, LLC

     —          (962     —           (962

Precision Acquisition Group Holdings, Inc.

     —          (1,078     —           (1,078

Saunders & Associates

     —          (1,150     —           (1,150

Reliable Pharmaceutical Holdings, Inc.

     —          (1,344     —           (1,344

International Junior Golf Training Acquisition Company

     —          (1,415     —           (1,415

Sunburst Media – Louisiana, LLC

     —          (1,612     —           (1,612

Lindmark Acquisition, LLC

     —          (1,739     —           (1,739

Viapack, Inc.

     —          (1,760     —           (1,760

 

54


Defiance Integrated Technologies, Inc.

     —          (3,422     —           (3,422

GFRC Holdings, LLC

     —          (3,845     —           (3,845

BAS Broadcasting

     —          (4,367     —           (4,367

Sunshine Media Holdings

     —          (7,847     —           (7,847

Other, net (<$250)

     496        682        166         1,344   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total:

   $ (12,819   $ (28,194   $ 17,000       $ (24,013
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

The largest drivers of our net unrealized depreciation for the year ended September 30, 2012, were the unrealized depreciation of Sunshine of $7.8 million, BAS of $4.4 million, GFRC of $3.8 million and Defiance of $3.4 million, all primarily due to a decline in the financial and operational performance of these portfolio companies. Of note, Sunshine was placed on non-accrual status during the year ended September 30, 2012.

During the year ended September 30, 2011, we recorded net unrealized depreciation of investments in the aggregate amount of $38.8 million, which included the reversal of $4.0 million related to the restructure of SCI. Excluding reversals, we recorded $42.7 million in net unrealized depreciation for the year ended September 30, 2011. Over our entire portfolio, the net unrealized depreciation was comprised of approximately $46.0 million in depreciation on our debt investments and approximately $3.3 million in appreciation on our equity investments for the year ended September 30, 2011.

The net realized (losses) gains and unrealized appreciation (depreciation) across our investments for the year ended September 30, 2011, were as follows:

 

     Year Ended September 30, 2011  

Portfolio Company

   Realized
(Loss)
Gain
    Net Unrealized
Appreciation
(Depreciation)
    Reversal of
Unrealized
Depreciation
(Appreciation)
    Net Gain
(Loss)
 

Defiance Integrated Technologies, Inc.

   $ —        $ 5,992      $ —        $ 5,992   

Midwest Metal Distribution, Inc.

     —          1,637        —          1,637   

SCI Cable, Inc.

     (1,283     (785     3,676        1,608   

KMBQ Corporation

     —          738        —          738   

Puerto Rico Cable Acquisition Company, Inc.

     (16     —          732        716   

WP Evenflo Group Holdings, Inc.

     —          485        —          485   

Airvana Network Solutions, Inc.

     177        267        (216     228   

Westlake Hardware, Inc.

     —          (280     —          (280

Vision Solutions, Inc.

     —          (355     —          (355

BAS Broadcasting

     —          (411     —          (411

LocalTel, LLC

     —          (479     —          (479

Mood Media Corporation

     —          (553     —          (553

International Junior Golf Training Acquisition Company

     —          (666     —          (666

Access Television Network, Inc.

     —          (704     —          (704

Sunburst Media—Louisiana, LLC

     —          (847     —          (847

Heartland Communications Group

     —          (871     —          (871

Legend Communications of Wyoming LLC

     —          (975     —          (975

GFRC Holdings LLC

     —          (1,668     —          (1,668

Kansas Cable Holdings, Inc.

     —          (2,665     —          (2,665

Lindmark Acquisition, LLC

     —          (4,547     —          (4,547

Viapack, Inc.

     —          (4,882     —          (4,882

Newhall Holdings, Inc.

     —          (9,339     —          (9,339

Sunshine Media Holdings

     (158     (21,237     —          (21,395

Other, net (<$250)

     —          (583     (223     (806
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total:

   $ (1,280   $ (42,728   $ 3,969      $ (40,039
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The largest driver of our net unrealized depreciation for the year ended September 30, 2011, was the notable depreciation in Sunshine, which was primarily due to a decline in its financial and operational performance. During the quarter ended March 31, 2011, we restructured our investment in Sunshine and took a controlling position. In addition, there was unrealized depreciation on Newhall of $9.3 million, Viapack of $4.9 million and Lindmark of $4.5 million, all primarily due to a decline in the financial and operational performance of these portfolio companies during the year ended September 30, 2011. Partially offsetting the unrealized depreciation was the unrealized appreciation of $6.0 million on Defiance, which resulted from an improvement in portfolio company performance and in certain comparable multiples. Of note, subsequent to September 30, 2011, Newhall and Viapack were sold and substantially all of Lindmark’s assets were sold and its debt outstanding at the time was repaid in full at par.

 

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As of September 30, 2012, the fair value of our investment portfolio was less than its cost basis by approximately $91.1 million, and our entire investment portfolio was valued at 75.0% of cost, as compared to cumulative net unrealized depreciation of $79.9 million and a valuation of our entire portfolio at 79.1% of cost as of September 30, 2011. This increase year over year in the cumulative unrealized depreciation on investments represents net unrealized depreciation of $11.2 million for the year ended September 30, 2012. Of the investment portfolio as of September 30, 2012, 21 portfolio companies originated before December 31, 2007, which represented 57.7% of the entire cost basis of the portfolio, were valued at 61.9% of cost and included the six investments that were on non-accrual status. Of the investment portfolio as of September 30, 2012, 29 portfolio companies that originated after December 31, 2007, representing 42.3% of the entire cost basis of our portfolio, were valued at 93.0% of cost and none of which were on non-accrual status.

We believe that our aggregate investment portfolio was valued at a depreciated value as of September 30, 2012, primarily due to the lingering effects of the recession that began in 2008 and its affect on the performance of certain of our portfolio companies and also because we were invested in certain industries that have been disproportionately impacted by the recession. The cumulative net unrealized depreciation of our investments does not have an impact on our current ability to pay distributions to stockholders; however, it may be an indication of future realized losses, which could ultimately reduce our income available for distribution to stockholders.

Net Unrealized (Appreciation) Depreciation of Borrowings

Net unrealized (appreciation) depreciation of borrowings is the net change in the fair value of our Credit Facility during the year, including the reversal of previously recorded unrealized appreciation or depreciation when gains and losses are realized. During the year ended September 30, 2012, we recorded a net unrealized appreciation of borrowings of $3.0 million compared to $0.5 million of net unrealized depreciation for the year ended September 30, 2011. Our Credit Facility was fair valued at $62.5 million and $100.0 million as of September 30, 2012 and September 30, 2011, respectively.

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Operating Activities

Our cash flows from operations generally come from the interest payments on debt securities that we receive from our portfolio companies, as well as cash proceeds received through repayments or sales of our investments. We utilize this cash primarily to pay interest payments on our Credit Facility, distributions to our stockholders, management fees to the Adviser, and other operating expenses. Net cash provided by operating activities for the year ended September 30, 2013, was $32.1 million as compared to $26.2 million for the year ended September 30, 2012. The increase in cash from operating activities was primarily due to the increase in repayments on investments, partially offset by an increase in purchases of investments during the year ended September 30, 2013. For the year ended September 30, 2011, net cash used in operating activities was $68.4 million, which was primarily driven by increased new investment activity during fiscal year 2011.

As of September 30, 2013, we had loans to, syndicated participations in and/or equity investments in 47 private companies, with an aggregate cost basis of approximately $332.3 million. As of September 30, 2012, we had loans to, syndicated participations in and/or equity investments in 50 private companies, with an aggregate cost basis of approximately $365.0 million.

The following table summarizes our total portfolio investment activity during the years ended September 30, 2013 and 2012:

 

     Year Ended September 30,  
     2013     2012  

Beginning investment portfolio at fair value

   $ 273,960      $ 302,947   

New investments

     80,418        45,050   

Disbursements to existing portfolio companies

     9,739        23,891   

Scheduled principal repayments

     (7,369     (7,149

Unscheduled principal repayments

     (103,122     (60,221

Proceeds from sales

     (6,557     (6,487

Net unrealized depreciation

     (10,355     (28,194

Reversal of prior periods’ net depreciation on realization

     26,028        17,000   

Net realized loss

     (5,753     (12,998

Increase in investment balance due to PIK interest (A)

     234        —     

Net change in premiums, discounts and amortization

     (345     121   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Ending Investment Portfolio at Fair Value

   $ 256,878      $ 273,960   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(A) PIK interest is a non-cash source of income and is calculated at the contractual rate stated in a loan agreement and added to the principal balance of a loan.

 

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The following table summarizes the contractual principal repayment and maturity of our investment portfolio by year, assuming no voluntary prepayments, at September 30, 2013.

 

Year Ending September 30,

   Amount  

2014

   $ 72,305   

2015

     44,860   

2016

     95,288   

2017

     18,657   

2018

     45,713   

Thereafter

     37,779   
  

 

 

 

Total Contractual Repayments

   $ 314,602   

Equity Investments

     18,613   

Adjustments to cost basis on debt investments

     (949
  

 

 

 

Total Cost Basis of Investments Held at September 30, 2013:

   $ 332,266   
  

 

 

 

Financing Activities

Net cash used in financing activities for the year ended September 30, 2013 was $28.1 million and consisted primarily of distributions to common stockholders of $17.6 million and net repayments on our Credit Facility of $11.9 million.

Net cash used in financing activities for the year ended September 30, 2012 was $22.8 million and consisted primarily of net repayments on our Credit Facility of $40.6 million and distributions to common stockholders of $17.7 million. These financing activities were partially offset by proceeds from the issuance of our Term Preferred Stock of $38.5 million in November 2011.

Net cash provided by financing activities for the year ended September 30, 2011 was $67.4 million and primarily consisted of net borrowings on our Credit Facility of $82.6 million, partially offset by distributions to common stockholders of $17.7 million.

Distributions to Stockholders

Common Stock Distributions

To qualify to be taxed as a RIC and thus avoid corporate level federal income tax on the income we distribute to our stockholders, we are required to distribute to our stockholders on an annual basis at least 90.0% of our investment company taxable income. In accordance with these requirements, we declared and paid monthly cash distributions of $0.07 per common share for each month during the years ended September 30, 2013, 2012 and 2011, which totaled an aggregate of $17.6 million, $17.7 million and $17.7 million, respectively. In October 2013, our Board of Directors declared a monthly distribution of $0.07 per common share for each of October, November and December 2013. Our Board of Directors declared these distributions to our stockholders based on our estimates of net investment income for the fiscal year ending September 30, 2014. Additionally, the covenants in our Credit Facility restrict the amount of distributions to stockholders that we can pay out to be no greater than our net investment income in each fiscal year. As of September 30, 2013, we have paid 120 consecutive monthly cash distributions and prior to that, we paid 8 consecutive quarterly cash distributions.

For each of the years ended September 30, 2013 and 2012, common stockholder distributions declared and paid exceeded our current and accumulated earnings and profits (after taking into account our Term Preferred Stock dividends), which resulted in a partial return of capital of approximately $1.3 million and $1.5 million, respectively. The returns of capital resulted primarily from accounting principles generally accepted in the U.S. (“GAAP”) realized losses being recognized as ordinary losses for federal income tax purposes in each of those fiscal years. Our accumulated earnings and profits exceeded common stockholder distributions declared and paid for the year ended September 30, 2011, and we therefore elected to treat $0.7 million of common distributions paid in fiscal year 2011 as having been paid in fiscal year 2012.

 

57


Preferred Stock Distributions

We also declared and paid monthly cash distributions of $0.1484375 per share of Term Preferred Stock for each month during the year ended September 30, 2013, which totaled an aggregate of $2.7 million. In October 2013, our Board of Directors declared a monthly distribution of $0.1484375 per share of Term Preferred Stock for each of October, November and December 2013. During the year ended September 30, 2012, we declared and paid monthly cash distributions of $0.1484375 per share of Term Preferred Stock for a prorated period in November 2011 and for each month from December 2011 through September 2012, which totaled an aggregate of $2.5 million. In accordance with GAAP, we treat these monthly distributions to preferred stockholders as an operating expense. For federal income tax purposes, distributions paid by us to preferred stockholders generally constitute ordinary income to the extent of our current and accumulated earnings and profits.

Dividend Reinvestment Plan

We offer a dividend reinvestment plan for our common stockholders through our transfer agent, Computershare, Inc. This is an “opt in” dividend reinvestment plan, meaning that common stockholders may elect to have their cash dividends automatically reinvested in additional shares of our common stock. Common stockholders who do not so elect will receive their dividends in cash. Common stockholders who receive distributions in the form of stock will be subject to the same federal, state and local tax consequences as stockholders who elect to receive their distributions in cash. The common stockholder will have an adjusted basis in the additional common shares purchased through the plan equal to the amount of the reinvested distribution. The additional shares will have a new holding period commencing on the day following the date on which the shares are credited to the common stockholder’s account. We do not have a dividend reinvestment plan for our preferred stock stockholders.

Equity

Registration Statement

On November 29, 2012, we filed our Registration Statement on Form N-2 (File No. 333-185191) that was amended on January 17, 2013, and which the SEC declared effective on January 18, 2013. Our Registration Statement is a universal shelf registration statement and permits us to issue, through one or more transactions, up to an aggregate of $300.0 million in securities, consisting of common stock, preferred stock, subscription rights, debt securities and warrants to purchase common stock, including through a combined offering of such securities. We have not issued any securities to date under our Registration Statement.

Common Stock

On May 17, 2010, we and the Adviser entered into an equity distribution agreement (the “Agreement”) with BB&T Capital Markets, a division of Scott & Stringfellow, LLC (the “Agent”), under which we could, from time to time, issue and sell through the Agent, as sales agent, up to 2.0 million shares of our common stock, par value $0.001 per share. In October 2012, we terminated this agreement. No shares were ever issued pursuant to this Agreement. Prepaid costs of $0.2 million related to the origination of this Agreement were expensed in the three months ended September 30, 2012.

We anticipate issuing equity securities to obtain additional capital in the future. However, we cannot determine the terms of any future equity issuances or whether we will be able to issue equity on terms favorable to us, or at all. Additionally, when our common stock is trading below NAV, as it has consistently over the last four years, the 1940 Act restricts our ability to obtain additional capital by issuing common stock. Generally, the 1940 Act provides that we may not issue and sell our common stock at a price below our then current NAV per common share, other than to our then existing common stockholders pursuant to a rights offering, without first obtaining approval from our stockholders and our independent directors. As of September 30, 2013, our NAV per common share was $9.81 and as of November 18, 2013 our closing market price was $9.44 per common share. To the extent that our common stock continues to trade at a market price below our NAV per common share, we will generally be precluded from raising equity capital through public offerings of our common stock, other than pursuant to stockholder approval or a rights offering to existing common stockholders.

 

58


At our annual meeting of stockholders held on February 14, 2013, our stockholders approved a proposal that authorizes us to sell shares of our common stock at a price below our then current NAV per common share for a period of one year from the date of such approval, provided that our Board of Directors makes certain determinations prior to any such sale. At the upcoming annual meeting of stockholders scheduled for February 13, 2014, our stockholders will again be asked to vote in favor of renewing this proposal for another year. We have not issued any common stock since February 2008 and have never issued common stock below the then current NAV per common share.

Term Preferred Stock

Pursuant to our prior registration statement, in November 2011, we completed an offering of 1.5 million shares of Term Preferred Stock at a public offering price of $25.00 per share. Gross proceeds totaled $38.5 million and net proceeds, after deducting underwriting discounts and offering expenses borne by us were approximately $36.4 million and were used to repay a portion of outstanding borrowings under our Credit Facility. We incurred $2.1 million in total offering costs related to these transactions, which have been recorded as an asset in accordance with GAAP and amortized over the redemption period ending December 31, 2016. No preferred stock had been issued prior to this issuance and we have not issued any additional preferred stock since November 2011.

Our Term Preferred Stock provides for a fixed dividend equal to 7.125% per year, payable monthly (which equates to approximately $2.7 million per year). We are required to redeem all of our outstanding Term Preferred Stock on December 31, 2016 for cash at a redemption price equal to $25.00 per share plus an amount equal to accumulated but unpaid dividends, if any, to the date of redemption. Our Term Preferred Stock has a preference over our common stock with respect to these dividends, whereby no distributions are payable on our common stock unless the stated dividends, including any accrued and unpaid dividends, on our Term Preferred Stock have been paid in full. In addition, the two other potential redemption triggers for our Term Preferred Stock are as follows: (1) if we fail to maintain an asset coverage ratio (as calculated under Section 18(h) of the 1940 Act) of at least 200%, we are required to redeem a portion of our outstanding Term Preferred Stock or otherwise cure the ratio redemption trigger; and (2) at our sole option, at any time on or after December 31, 2012. No redemptions of our outstanding Term Preferred Stock have been made to date.

Our Term Preferred Stock has been recorded as a liability in accordance with GAAP and, as such, affects our asset coverage, exposing us to additional leverage risks. In addition, our Term Preferred Stock is not convertible into our common stock or any other security. Our Term Preferred Stock is currently traded on the NASDAQ with a trading symbol of “GLADP.”

Revolving Credit Facility

On April 26, 2013, we, through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Business Loan, entered into Amendment No. 6 to the fourth amended and restated credit agreement (our “Credit Facility”) to extend the maturity date for one year to January 19, 2016 (the “Maturity Date”). Our $137.0 million revolving Credit Facility was arranged by Key Equipment Finance Inc. (“Key Equipment”) as administrative agent. Keybank National Association (“Keybank”), Branch Banking and Trust Company and ING Capital LLC also joined our Credit Facility as committed lenders. Subject to certain terms and conditions, our Credit Facility may be expanded from $137.0 to a maximum of $237.0 million through the addition of other committed lenders to the facility. The interest rates on advances under our Credit Facility generally bear interest at a 30-day LIBOR plus 3.75% per annum, with a commitment fee of 0.5% per annum on undrawn amounts when our facility is drawn more than 50% and 1.0% per annum on undrawn amounts when our facility is drawn less than 50%. If our Credit Facility is not renewed or extended by the Maturity Date, all principal and interest will be due and payable on or before November 30, 2016. We incurred fees of $0.7 million in April 2013 in connection with this amendment, which are being amortized through the Maturity Date of our Credit Facility. All other terms of our Credit Facility remained generally unchanged at the time of this amendment.

Prior to the April 26, 2013 amendment, on January 29, 2013, we, through Business Loan, amended our Credit Facility to remove the LIBOR minimum of 1.5% on advances. In addition, on January 19, 2012, we, through Business Loan, amended our Credit Facility to extend the then current maturity date of our revolving line of credit from March 15, 2012 to January 19, 2015, which has subsequently been amended to January 19, 2016, as described above. We incurred fees of $0.6 million in January 2013 and $1.5 million in January 2012 in connection with these amendments, which are being amortized through the Maturity Date of our Credit Facility. All other terms of our Credit Facility remained generally unchanged at the time of these amendments.

Interest is payable monthly during the term of our Credit Facility. Available borrowings are subject to various constraints imposed under our Credit Facility, based on the aggregate loan balance pledged by Business Loan, which varies as loans are added and repaid, regardless of whether such repayments are prepayments or made as contractually required.

 

59


Our Credit Facility also requires that any interest or principal payments on pledged loans be remitted directly by the borrower into a lockbox account with Key Equipment as custodian. Key Equipment, who also serves as the trustee of the account, generally remits the collected funds to us once a month.

Our Credit Facility contains covenants that require Business Loan to maintain its status as a separate legal entity, prohibit certain significant corporate transactions (such as mergers, consolidations, liquidations or dissolutions), and restrict material changes to our credit and collection policies. Our Credit Facility also limits payments of distributions to our stockholders to aggregate net investment income for each of the twelve month periods ending September 30, 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016. Business Loan is also subject to certain limitations on the type of loan investments it can apply as collateral towards the borrowing base in order to receive additional borrowing availability under our Credit Facility, including restrictions on geographic concentrations, sector concentrations, loan size, interest rate type, payment frequency and status, average life and lien property. Our Credit Facility further requires Business Loan to comply with other financial and operational covenants, which obligate Business Loan to, among other things, maintain certain financial ratios, including asset and interest coverage and a required minimum number of 20 obligors in the borrowing base of our Credit Facility. Additionally, we are subject to a performance guaranty that requires us to maintain (i) a minimum net worth (defined in our Credit Facility to include our Term Preferred Stock) of $190.0 million plus 50.0% of all equity and subordinated debt raised after January 19, 2012, which equates to $190.0 million as of September 30, 2013, (ii) asset coverage with respect to Senior Securities representing indebtedness of at least 200%, in accordance with Section 18 of the 1940 Act and (iii) our status as a BDC under the 1940 Act and as a RIC under the Code. As of September 30, 2013, and as defined in the performance guaranty of our Credit Facility, we had a net worth of $244.5 million, an asset coverage of 341.0% and an active status as a BDC and RIC. In addition, we had 31 obligors in the borrowing base of our Credit Facility as of September 30, 2013. As of September 30, 2013, we were in compliance with all of our Credit Facility covenants.

On July 15, 2013, we, through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Business Loan, entered into an interest rate cap agreement with Keybank, effective July 9, 2013 and expiring January 19, 2016, for a notional amount of $35.0 million that effectively limits the interest rate on a portion of our borrowings under our revolving line of credit pursuant to the terms of our Credit Facility. The one month LIBOR cap is set at 5.0%. We incurred a premium fee of $62 in conjunction with this agreement. Beginning with the quarter ending September 30, 2013, we have recorded the fair value of the interest rate cap agreement in other assets in our accompanying Consolidated Statements of Assets and Liabilities and the change in the fair value based on the current market valuations at quarter end in net unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of other in our accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations .

Contractual Obligations and Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

We have lines of credit with certain of our portfolio companies that have not been fully drawn. Since these commitments have expiration dates and we expect many will never be fully drawn, the total commitment amounts do not necessarily represent future cash requirements.

In addition to the lines of credit with our portfolio companies, we, from time to time, have also extended certain guarantees on behalf of some our portfolio companies during the normal course of business. As of September 30, 2013, we were not party to any guarantees.

When investing in certain private equity funds, we may have uncalled capital commitments depending on the agreed upon terms of our committed ownership interest. These capital commitments usually have a specific date in the future set as a closing date, at which time the commitment is either funded or terminates. As of September 30, 2013, we had uncalled capital commitments related to our partnership interest in Leeds Novamark Capital I, L.P.

We estimate the fair value of our unused line of credit and uncalled capital commitments and our guarantee as of September 30, 2013 to be minimal; and therefore, they are not recorded on our accompanying Consolidated Statements of Assets and Liabilities .

 

60


The following table shows our contractual obligations as of September 30, 2013 at cost:

 

     Payments Due by Period  

Contractual Obligations (A)

   Less than
1 Year
     1-3 Years      3-5 Years      More than 5
Years
     Total  

Credit Facility (B)

   $ —         $ 46,900       $ —         $ —         $ 46,900   

Term Preferred Stock

     —           38,497         —           —           38,497   

Interest expense on debt obligations (C)

     5,535         7,073         —           —           12,608   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total

   $ 5,535       $ 92,470       $ —         $ —         $ 98,005   
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(A)   Excludes our unused line of credit and uncalled capital commitments to our portfolio companies in an aggregate amount of $9.2 million as of September 30, 2013.
(B)   Principal balance of borrowings outstanding under our Credit Facility, based on the current contractual maturity due to the revolving nature of the facility.
(C)   Includes estimated interest payments on our Credit Facility and dividend obligations on our Term Preferred Stock. The amount of interest expense calculated for purposes of this table was based upon rates and balances as of September 30, 2013. Dividend payments on our Term Preferred Stock assume quarterly dividend declarations and monthly dividend distributions through the date of mandatory redemption.

Of our interest bearing debt investments as of September 30, 2013, 45.5% had a success fee component, which enhances the yield on our debt investments. Unlike PIK income, we do not recognize success fees as income until they are received in cash. As a result, as of September 30, 2013, we have an aggregate off-balance sheet success fee receivable of $14.8 million, or approximately $0.71 per common share, on our accruing debt investments that would be owed to us based on our current portfolio if fully paid off. Due to their contingent nature, there are no guarantees that we will be able to collect all of these success fees or know the timing of such collections.

Critical Accounting Policies

The preparation of financial statements and related disclosures in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported consolidated amounts of assets and liabilities, including disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and revenues and expenses during the years reported. Actual results could differ materially from those estimates under different assumptions or conditions. We have identified our investment valuation process as our most critical accounting policy.

Investment Valuation

The most significant estimate inherent in the preparation of our accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements is the valuation of investments and the related amounts of unrealized appreciation and depreciation of investments recorded. The Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 820, “ Fair Value Measurement and Disclosures ,” defines fair value, establishes a framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosures about assets and liabilities measured at fair value. ASC 820 provides a consistent definition of fair value that focuses on exit price in the principal, or most advantageous, market and prioritizes, within a measurement of fair value, the use of market-based inputs over entity-specific inputs. ASC 820 also establishes the following three-level hierarchy for fair value measurements based upon the transparency of inputs to the valuation of an asset or liability as of the measurement date.

 

    Level 1 —inputs to the valuation methodology are quoted prices (unadjusted) for identical assets or liabilities in active markets;

 

    Level 2 —inputs to the valuation methodology include quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active or inactive markets, and inputs that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly, for substantially the full term of the financial instrument. Level 2 inputs are in those markets for which there are few transactions, the prices are not current, little public information exists or instances where prices vary substantially over time or among brokered market makers; and

 

    Level 3 —inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement. Unobservable inputs are those inputs that reflect assumptions that market participants would use when pricing the asset or liability and can include the Adviser’s assumptions based upon the best available information.

Our investment portfolio is comprised of debt and equity securities of privately held companies for which quoted prices or other inputs falling within the categories of Level 1 and Level 2 are generally not available. Therefore, as of September 30, 2013 and 2012, all of our investments were valued using Level 3 inputs. See Note 3— Investments in our accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report for additional information regarding fair value measurements and our application of ASC 820.

The Adviser uses generally accepted valuation techniques to value our portfolio unless it has specific information about the value of an investment to determine otherwise. From time to time, the Adviser may accept an appraisal of a business in which we hold securities. These appraisals are expensive and occur infrequently but provide a third-party valuation opinion that may differ in results, techniques and scopes used to value our investments. When these specific third-party appraisals are engaged or accepted, the Adviser would use estimates of value provided by such appraisals and its own assumptions

 

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including estimated remaining life, current market yield and interest rate spreads of similar securities, as of the measurement date, to value our investments. The recorded fair values of our investments may differ significantly from fair values that would have been used had an active market for the securities existed. In addition, changes in the market environment and other events that may occur over the life of the investments may cause the gains or losses ultimately realized on these investments to be different than the valuations currently assigned.

General Valuation Policy

In determining the value of our investments, the Adviser has established an investment valuation policy (the “Policy”). The Policy has been approved by our Board of Directors, and each quarter our Board of Directors reviews whether the Adviser has applied the Policy consistently and votes whether or not to accept the recommended valuation of our investment portfolio. The Adviser values our investments in accordance with the requirements of the 1940 Act. As discussed more fully below, the Adviser values securities for which market quotations are readily available and reliable at their market value. The Adviser values all other securities and assets at fair value as determined in good faith by our Board of Directors. Such determination of fair values may involve subjective judgments and estimates.

The Policy, which is summarized below, applies to the following categories of securities:

 

    Publicly traded securities;

 

    Securities for which a limited market exists; and

 

    Securities for which no market exists.

Valuation Method

Publicly traded securities: The Adviser determines the value of publicly traded securities based on the closing price for the security on the exchange or securities market on which it is listed and primarily traded on the valuation date. To the extent that we own a restricted security that is not freely tradable, but for which a public market otherwise exists, the Adviser will use the market value of that security adjusted for any decrease in value resulting from the restrictive feature. As of September 30, 2013 and 2012, we did not have any investments in publicly traded securities.

Securities for which a limited market exists: The Adviser values securities that are not traded on an established secondary securities market, but for which a limited market for the security exists, such as certain participations in, or assignments of, syndicated loans, at the quoted bid price, which are non-binding. In valuing these assets, the Adviser assesses trading activity in an asset class, evaluates variances in prices and other market insights to determine if any available quote prices are reliable. If the Adviser concludes that quotes based on active markets or trading activity may be relied upon, firm bid prices are requested; however, if a firm bid price is unavailable, the Adviser bases the value of the security upon the indicative bid price (“IBP”) offered by the respective originating syndication agent’s trading desk, or secondary desk, on or near the valuation date. To the extent that the Adviser uses the IBP as a basis for valuing the security, it may take further steps to consider additional information to validate that price in accordance with the Policy, including but not limited to reviewing a range of indicative bids to the extent it has ready access to such qualified information.

In the event these limited markets become illiquid such that market prices are no longer readily available, the Adviser will value our syndicated loans using alternative methods, such as estimated net present values of the future cash flows or discounted cash flows (“DCF”). The use of a DCF methodology follows that prescribed by ASC 820, which provides guidance on the use of a reporting entity’s own assumptions about future cash flows and risk-adjusted discount rates when relevant observable inputs, such as quotes in active markets, are not available. When relevant observable market data does not exist, the alternative outlined in ASC 820 is the valuation of investments based on DCF. For the purposes of using DCF to provide fair value estimates, the Adviser considers multiple inputs such as a risk-adjusted discount rate that incorporates adjustments that market participants would make both for nonperformance and liquidity risks. As such, the Adviser develops a modified discount rate approach that incorporates risk premiums including, among others, increased probability of default, or higher loss given default, or increased liquidity risk. The DCF valuations applied to the syndicated loans provide an estimate of what the Adviser believes a market participant would pay to purchase a syndicated loan in an active market, thereby establishing a fair value. The Adviser applies the DCF methodology in illiquid markets until quoted prices are available or are deemed reliable based on trading activity.

As of September 30, 2013 and 2012, the Adviser determined that the IBPs were reliable indicators of fair value for our syndicate investments. However, because of the private nature of this marketplace (meaning actual transactions are not publicly-reported), we believe that these valuation inputs are classified as Level 3 within the fair value hierarchy as defined in ASC 820.

 

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Securities for which no market exists: The valuation methodology for securities for which no market exists falls into four categories: (A) portfolio investments comprised solely of debt securities; (B) portfolio investments in controlled companies comprised of a bundle of securities, which can include debt and equity securities; (C) portfolio investments in non-controlled companies comprised of a bundle of investments, which can include debt and equity securities; and (D) portfolio investments comprised of non-publicly traded non-control equity securities of other funds.

 

(A) Portfolio investments comprised solely of debt securities: Debt securities that are not publicly traded on an established securities market, or for which a limited market does not exist (“Non-Public Debt Securities”), and that are issued by portfolio companies where we have no equity or equity-like securities, are fair valued utilizing estimates of value submitted to the Adviser by Standard & Poor’s Securities Evaluations, Inc. (“SPSE”) and its own assumptions in the absence of observable market data, including synthetic credit ratings, estimated remaining life, current market yield and interest rate spreads of similar securities as of the measurement date. The Adviser may also submit PIK interest to SPSE for their evaluation when it is determined that PIK interest is likely to be received.

In the case of Non-Public Debt Securities, the Adviser has engaged SPSE to submit opinions of value for our debt securities that are issued by portfolio companies in which we own no equity, or equity-like securities. SPSE will only evaluate the debt portion of our investments for which the Adviser specifically requests evaluation, and may decline to make requested evaluations for any reason at its sole discretion. Upon completing the Adviser’s collection of data with respect to the investments (which may include the information described below under “ Credit Information,” the risk ratings of the loans described below under “ Loan Grading and Risk Rating” and the factors described hereunder), this valuation data is forwarded to SPSE for review and analysis. SPSE makes its independent assessment of the data that the Adviser has assembled and assesses its independent data to form an opinion as to what they consider to be the market values for the securities. With regard to its work, SPSE has issued the following paragraph:

SPSE provides evaluated price opinions which are reflective of what SPSE believes the bid side of the market would be for each loan after careful review and analysis of descriptive, market and credit information. Each price reflects SPSE’s best judgment based upon careful examination of a variety of market factors. Because of fluctuation in the market and in other factors beyond its control, however, SPSE cannot guarantee these evaluations. The evaluations reflect the market prices, or estimates thereof, on the date specified. The prices are based on comparable market prices for similar securities. Market information has been obtained from reputable secondary market sources. Although these sources are considered reliable, SPSE cannot guarantee their accuracy.

SPSE opinions of value of our debt securities that are issued by portfolio companies where we have no equity or equity-like securities are submitted to our Board of Directors along with the Adviser’s supplemental assessment and recommendation regarding valuation of each of these investments. The Adviser generally accepts the opinion of value given by SPSE, however, in certain limited circumstances, such as when the Adviser may learn new information regarding an investment between the time of submission to SPSE and the date of the board assessment the Adviser’s conclusions as to value may differ from the opinion of value delivered by SPSE. Our Board of Directors then reviews whether the Adviser has followed its established procedures for determinations of fair value, and votes to accept or reject the recommended valuation of our investment portfolio. The Adviser and our management recommended, and the Board of Directors voted to accept, the opinions of value delivered by SPSE on the loans in our portfolio as denoted on our Consolidated Schedule of Investments included in our accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements .

Because there is a delay between when we close an investment and when the investment can be evaluated by SPSE, new loans are not valued immediately by SPSE; rather, the Adviser makes its own determination about the value of these investments in accordance with our valuation policy using the methods described herein.

 

(B) Portfolio investments in controlled companies comprised of a bundle of investments, which can include debt and equity securities: The fair value of these investments is determined based on the total enterprise value (“TEV”) of the portfolio company, or issuer, utilizing a liquidity waterfall approach. For Non-Public Debt Securities and equity or equity-like securities (e.g. preferred equity, common equity, or other equity-like securities) that are purchased together as part of a package, where we have control or could gain control through an option or warrant security, both the debt and equity securities of the portfolio investment would exit in the mergers and acquisitions market as the principal market, generally through a sale or recapitalization of the portfolio company. We generally exit the debt and equity securities of one issuer together. Applying the liquidity waterfall approach to all of the investments of an issuer, the Adviser first calculates the TEV of the issuer by incorporating some or all of the following factors:

 

    the issuer’s ability to make payments;

 

63


    the earnings of the issuer;

 

    recent sales to third parties of similar securities;

 

    the comparison to publicly traded securities; and

 

    DCF or other pertinent factors.

In gathering the sales to third parties of similar securities, the Adviser may reference industry statistics and use outside experts, TEV is only an estimate of value and may not be the value received in an actual sale. Once the Adviser has estimated the TEV of the issuer, it subtracts the value of all the debt securities of the issuer; which are valued at the contractual principal balance. Fair values of these debt securities are discounted for any shortfall of TEV over the total debt outstanding for the issuer. Once the values for all outstanding senior securities (which include the debt securities) have been subtracted from the TEV of the issuer, the remaining amount, if any, is used to determine the value of the issuer’s equity or equity-like securities. If, in the Adviser’s judgment, the liquidity waterfall approach does not accurately reflect the value of the debt component, the Adviser may recommend that we use a valuation by SPSE or, if that is unavailable, a DCF valuation technique.

 

(C) Portfolio investments in non-controlled companies comprised of a bundle of investments, which can include debt and equity securities: The Adviser values Non-Public Debt Securities that are purchased together with equity or equity-like securities from the same portfolio company, or issuer, for which we do not control or cannot gain control as of the measurement date, using a hypothetical secondary market as our principal market. In accordance with ASC 820 (as amended by the FASB’s Accounting Standards Update No. 2011-04, “ Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Amendments to Achieve Common Fair Value Measurement and Disclosure Requirements in U.S. GAAP and International Financial Reporting Standards ,” (“ASU 2011-04”), the Adviser has defined our “unit of account” at the investment level (either debt or equity) and therefore it determines the fair value of these non-control investments assuming the sale of an individual security using the stand-alone premise of value. As such, the Adviser estimates the fair value of the debt component using estimates of value provided by SPSE and its own assumptions in the absence of observable market data, including synthetic credit ratings, estimated remaining life, current market yield and interest rate spreads of similar securities as of the measurement date. For equity or equity-like securities of investments for which we do not control or cannot gain control as of the measurement date, the Adviser estimates the fair value of the equity based on factors such as the overall value of the issuer, the relative fair value of other units of account including debt, or other relative value approaches. Consideration also is given to capital structure and other contractual obligations that may impact the fair value of the equity. Furthermore, the Adviser may utilize comparable values of similar companies, recent investments and indices with similar structures and risk characteristics or DCF valuation techniques and, in absence of other observable market data, its own assumptions.

 

(D) Portfolio investments comprised of non-publicly traded non-control equity securities of other funds: The Adviser generally values any uninvested capital of the non-control fund at par value and value any invested capital at the NAV provided by the non-control fund.

Due to the uncertainty inherent in the valuation process, such estimates of fair value may differ significantly and materially from the values that would have been obtained had a ready market for the securities existed. Additionally, changes in the market environment and other events that may occur over the life of the investments may cause the gains or losses ultimately realized on these investments to be different than the valuations currently assigned. There is no single standard for determining fair value in good faith, as fair value depends upon circumstances of each individual case. In general, fair value is the amount that the Adviser might reasonably expect us to receive upon the current sale of the security in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.

Valuation Considerations

From time to time, depending on certain circumstances, the Adviser may use the following valuation considerations, including but not limited to:

 

    the nature and realizable value of the collateral;

 

    the portfolio company’s earnings and cash flows and its ability to make payments on its obligations;

 

    the markets in which the portfolio company does business;

 

    the comparison to publicly traded companies; and

 

    DCF and other relevant factors.

 

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Because such valuations, particularly valuations of private securities and private companies, are not susceptible to precise determination, may fluctuate over short periods of time, and may be based on estimates, the Adviser’s determinations of fair value may differ from the values that might have actually resulted had a readily available market for these securities been available.

Credit Information

The Adviser monitors a wide variety of key credit statistics that provide information regarding our portfolio companies to help us assess credit quality and portfolio performance. Generally, we, through the Adviser, participate in periodic board meetings of our portfolio companies in which we hold voting securities and also require them to provide annual audited and monthly unaudited financial statements. Using these statements or comparable information and board discussions, the Adviser calculates and evaluates the credit statistics.

Loan Grading and Risk Rating

As part of the Adviser’s valuation procedures above, it risk rates all of our investments in debt securities. The Adviser does not risk rate our equity securities. For syndicated loans that have been rated by a Nationally Recognized Statistical Rating Organization (“NRSRO”) (as defined in Rule 2a-7 under the 1940 Act), the Adviser uses the NRSRO’s risk rating for such security. For all other debt securities, the Adviser uses a proprietary risk rating system. The Adviser’s risk rating system uses a scale of 0 to 10, with 10 being the lowest probability of default. This system is used to estimate the probability of default on debt securities and the expected loss if there is a default. These types of systems are referred to as risk rating systems and are used by banks and rating agencies. The risk rating system covers both qualitative and quantitative aspects of the business and the securities we hold.

For the debt securities for which the Adviser does not use a third-party NRSRO risk rating, the Adviser seeks to have its risk rating system mirror the risk rating systems of major risk rating organizations, such as those provided by an NRSRO. While the Adviser seeks to mirror the NRSRO systems, we cannot provide any assurance that the Adviser’s risk rating system will provide the same risk rating as an NRSRO for these securities. The following chart is an estimate of the relationship of the Adviser’s risk rating system to the designations used by two NRSROs as they risk rate debt securities of major companies. Because the Adviser’s system rates debt securities of companies that are unrated by any NRSRO, there can be no assurance that the correlation to the NRSRO set out below is accurate. The Adviser believes its risk rating would be higher than a typical NRSRO risk rating because the risk rating of the typical NRSRO is designed for larger businesses. However, the Adviser’s risk rating has been designed to risk rate the securities of smaller businesses that are not rated by a typical NRSRO. Therefore, when the Adviser uses its risk rating on larger business securities, the risk rating is higher than a typical NRSRO rating. The Adviser believes the primary difference between its risk rating and the rating of a typical NRSRO is that the Adviser’s risk rating uses more quantitative determinants and includes qualitative determinants that it believes are not used in the NRSRO rating. It is the Adviser’s understanding that most debt securities of medium-sized companies do not exceed the grade of BBB on an NRSRO scale, so there would be no debt securities in the middle market that would meet the definition of AAA, AA or A. Therefore, the Adviser’s scale begins with the designation >10 as the best risk rating which may be equivalent to a BBB from an NRSRO; however, no assurance can be given that a >10 on the Adviser’s scale is equal to a BBB on an NRSRO scale. The scale below gives an indication of the probability of default and the magnitude of the loss if there is a default.

 

Adviser’s

System

    

First
NRSRO

  

Second
NRSRO

  

Description (A)

  >10       Baa2    BBB    Probability of Default (PD) during the next 10 years is 4.0% and the Expected Loss (EL) is 1.0% or less
  10       Baa3    BBB-    PD is 5.0% and the EL is 1.0% to 2.0%
  9       Ba1    BB+    PD is 10.0% and the EL is 2.0% to 3.0%
  8       Ba2    BB    PD is 16.0% and the EL is 3.0% to 4.0%
  7       Ba3    BB-    PD is 17.8% and the EL is 4.0% to 5.0%
  6       B1    B+    PD is 22.0% and the EL is 5.0% to 6.5%
  5       B2    B    PD is 25.0% and the EL is 6.5% to 8.0%
  4       B3    B-    PD is 27.0% and the EL is 8.0% to 10.0%
  3       Caa1    CCC+    PD is 30.0% and the EL is 10.0% to 13.3%
  2       Caa2    CCC    PD is 35.0% and the EL is 13.3% to 16.7%
  1       Caa3    CC    PD is 65.0% and the EL is 16.7% to 20.0%
  <1       N/A    D    PD is 85.0% or there is a payment default and the EL is greater than 20.0%

 

(A)   The default rates set forth are for a ten year term debt security. If a debt security is less than ten years, then the probability of default is adjusted to a lower percentage for the shorter period, which may move the security higher on our risk rating scale.

 

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The following table lists the risk ratings for all non-syndicated loans in our portfolio at September 30, 2013 and 2012, representing approximately 80.5% and 78.5%, respectively, of the principal balance of all debt investments in our portfolio at the end of each year:

 

                             
     As of September 30,

Rating

   2013    2012

Highest

   10.0    10.0

Average

   5.9    5.8

Weighted Average

   5.5    5.5

Lowest

   2.0    2.0

For syndicated loans that are currently rated by an NRSRO, the Adviser risk rates such loans in accordance with the risk rating systems of major risk rating organizations, such as those provided by an NRSRO. The following table lists the risk ratings for all syndicated loans in our portfolio that were rated by an NRSRO at September 30, 2013 and 2012, representing approximately 13.7% and 14.7%, respectively, of the principal balance of all debt investments in our portfolio at the end of each year:

 

     As of September 30,

Rating

   2013    2012

Highest

   B+/NR    B+/B1

Average

   B/B2    B/B2

Weighted Average

   B/B2    B/B2

Lowest

   CCC/Caa1    NR/Caa1

The following table lists the risk ratings for all syndicated loans in our portfolio that were not rated by an NRSRO. At September 30, 2013 and 2012, these loans represented 5.8% and 6.8%, respectively, of the principal balance of all debt investments in our portfolio at the end of each year:

 

     As of September 30,

Rating

   2013    2012

Highest

   5.0    7.0

Average

   4.5    5.3

Weighted Average

   4.6    5.2

Lowest

   4.0    4.0

Tax Status

We intend to continue to maintain our qualification as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code for federal income tax purposes. As a RIC, we are not subject to federal income tax on the portion of our taxable income and gains distributed to our stockholders. To maintain our qualification as a RIC, we must meet certain source-of-income and asset diversification requirements. In addition, in order to qualify to be taxed as a RIC, we must also meet certain annual stockholder distribution requirements. To satisfy the RIC annual distribution requirement, we must distribute to stockholders at least 90.0% of our investment company taxable income. Our policy generally is to make distributions to our stockholders in an amount up to 100.0% of our investment company taxable income.

In an effort to limit certain federal excise taxes imposed on RICs, we currently intend to distribute to our stockholders, during each calendar year, an amount at least equal to the sum of: (1) 98.0% of our ordinary income for the calendar year, (2) 98.2% of our capital gain net income for the one-year period ending on October 31 of the calendar year, and (3) any ordinary income and capital gain net income from preceding years that were not distributed during such years. Under the RIC Modernization Act (the “RIC Act”), we are permitted to carryforward capital losses incurred in taxable years beginning after September 30, 2011, for an unlimited period. However, any losses incurred during those future taxable years will be required to be utilized

 

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prior to the losses incurred in pre-enactment taxable years, which carry an expiration date. As a result of this ordering rule, pre-enactment capital loss carryforwards may be more likely to expire unused. Additionally, post-enactment capital loss carryforwards will retain their character as either short-term or long-term capital losses rather than being considered all short-term as permitted under the previous regulation.

We sought and received approval for a change in accounting method from the Internal Revenue Service related to our tax treatment for success fees. As a result, we, in effect, will continue to account for the recognition of income from the success fees upon receipt, or when the amount becomes fixed. However, starting January 1, 2011, the tax characterization of the success fee amount was and will continue to be treated as ordinary income. Prior to January 1, 2011, we had treated the success fee amount as a capital gain for tax characterization purposes. The approved change in accounting method does not require us to retroactively change the capital gains treatment of the success fees received prior to January 1, 2011.

Revenue Recognition

Interest Income Recognition

Interest income, adjusted for amortization of premiums, acquisition costs and amendment fees and the accretion of original issue discounts (“OID”), is recorded on the accrual basis to the extent that such amounts are expected to be collected. Generally, when a loan becomes 90 days or more past due or if our qualitative assessment indicates that the debtor is unable to service its debt or other obligations, we will place the loan on non-accrual status and cease recognizing interest income on that loan for financial reporting purposes until the borrower has demonstrated the ability and intent to pay contractual amounts due. However, we remain contractually entitled to this interest. Interest payments received on non-accrual loans may be recognized as income or applied to the cost basis depending upon management’s judgment. Generally, non-accrual loans are restored to accrual status when past due principal and interest are paid and, in management’s judgment, are likely to remain current, or due to a restructuring such that the interest income is deemed to be collectible. At September 30, 2013, two portfolio companies were on non-accrual status with an aggregate debt cost basis of approximately $39.5 million, or 12.6% of the cost basis of all debt investments in our portfolio, and an aggregate fair value of approximately $5.8 million, or 2.4% of the fair value of all debt investments in our portfolio. At September 30, 2012, six portfolio companies were either fully or partially on non-accrual status with an aggregate debt cost basis of approximately $61.1 million, or 17.3% of the cost basis of all debt investments in our portfolio, and an aggregate fair value of approximately $6.8 million, or 2.6% of the fair value of all debt investments in our portfolio.

We currently hold, and we expect to hold in the future, some loans in our portfolio that contain OID or PIK provisions. We recognize OID for loans originally issued at discounts and recognize the income over the life of the obligation based on an effective yield calculation. PIK interest, computed at the contractual rate specified in a loan agreement, is added to the principal balance of a loan and recorded as income over the life of the obligation. Thus, the actual collection of PIK income may be deferred until the time of debt principal repayment. To maintain our ability to be taxed as a RIC, we may need to pay out both of our OID and PIK non-cash income amounts in the form of distributions, even though we have not yet collected the cash.

As of September 30, 2013 and 2012, we had 19 and 24 OID loans, respectively, primarily from the syndicated loans in our portfolio. We recorded OID income of $0.3 million, $0.3 million and $0.2 million for the years ended September 30, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. The unamortized balance of OID investments as of September 30, 2013 and 2012 totaled $1.0 million and $1.1 million, respectively. As of September 30, 2013, we had three investments which had a PIK interest component and as of September 30, 2012, we had one investment which had a PIK interest component. We recorded PIK interest income of $0.3 million, $20 and $12 for the years ended September 30, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively. We collected no PIK interest in cash for the years ended September 30, 2013, 2012 and 2011, respectively.

We also transfer past due interest to the principal balance as stipulated in certain loan amendments with portfolio companies. There were no such transfers during the years ended September 30, 2013 and 2012. We transferred past due interest to the principal balance of $0.2 million for the year ended September 30, 2011.

Other Income Recognition

We generally record success fees upon receipt of cash. Success fees are contractually due upon a change of control in a portfolio company. We received an aggregate of $1.7 million in success fees during the year ended September 30, 2013, which resulted from the early payoffs at par of Westlake for $1.1 million in December 2012 and CMI for $0.6 million in September 2013. We received an aggregate of $4.0 million in success fees during the year ended September 30, 2012, which resulted from the early payoffs at par of Winchester for $1.2 million, GMT for $1.1 million, RCS for $0.9 million and Northern Contours for $0.8 million. During the year ended September 30, 2011, we received an aggregate of $1.0 million in

 

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success fees from the early payoffs at par of Pinnacle for $0.5 million and Interfilm for $0.1 million and also a prepaid success fee of $0.4 million from Westlake. As of September 30, 2013 and 2012, we had an aggregate off-balance sheet success fee receivable of approximately $14.8 million and $13.2 million, respectively, on our accruing debt investments.

We generally record prepayment fees upon receipt of cash. Prepayment fees are contractually due at the time of an investment’s exit, based on the prepayment penalty fee schedule. During the year ended September 30, 2013, we received an aggregate of $0.9 million in prepayment fees, which resulted from the early payoffs of eight of our syndicated investments at par during the 2013 fiscal year. We received an aggregate of $0.2 million in prepayment fees during the year ended September 30, 2012, which resulted from the early payoffs of five of our syndicated investments at par during the 2012 fiscal year, and no prepayment fees were received during the year ended September 30, 2011.

Dividend income on preferred equity investments is accrued to the extent that such amounts are expected to be collected and if we have the option to collect such amounts in cash. During the years ended September 30, 2013, 2012 and 2011 we did not record or collect any dividend income on our preferred equity investments.

Success fees, prepayment fees and dividend income are all recorded in other income in our accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations . In addition, we received an aggregate of $1.0 million from two legal settlements related to portfolio companies during the year ended September 30, 2011, that were also recorded in other income during the 2011 fiscal year.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 2— Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in the notes to our accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this report for a description and our application of recent accounting pronouncements. Our adoption of these recent accounting pronouncements did not have a material effect on our financial position and results of operations.

ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK (DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, UNLESS OTHERWISE INDICATED)

Market risk includes risks that arise from changes in interest rates, foreign currency exchange rates, commodity prices, equity prices and other market changes that affect market sensitive instruments. The prices of securities held by us may decline in response to certain events, including those directly involving the companies whose securities are owned by us; conditions affecting the general economy; overall market changes; local, regional or global political, social or economic instability; and interest rate fluctuations.

The primary risk we believe we are exposed to is interest rate risk. Because we borrow money to make investments, our net investment income is dependent upon the difference between the rate at which we borrow funds and the rate at which we invest those funds. As a result, there can be no assurance that a significant change in market interest rates will not have a material adverse effect on our net investment income. We use a combination of debt and equity capital to finance our investing activities. We may use interest rate risk management techniques from time to time to limit our exposure to interest rate fluctuations. Such techniques may include various interest rate hedging activities to the extent permitted by the 1940 Act.

We target to have approximately 10.0% of the loans in our portfolio at fixed rates, with approximately 90.0% made at variable rates or variable rates with a floor. As of September 30, 2013, our portfolio consisted of the following:

 

  84.9   variable rates with a LIBOR or prime rate floor
  14.6      fixed rates
  0.5      variable rates without a floor

 

 

   
      100.0   total

 

 

   

All of our variable-rate loans have rates generally associated with either the current LIBOR or prime rate.

In July 2013, we, through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Business Loan, entered into an interest rate cap agreement with Keybank, effective July 9, 2013 and expiring January 19, 2016, for a notional amount of $35.0 million that effectively limits the interest rate on a portion of our borrowings under our revolving line of credit pursuant to the terms of our Credit Facility. This agreement will entitle us to receive payments, if any, equal to the amount by which interest payments on the current notational amount at the one month LIBOR exceed the payments on the current notional amount at 5.0%. The agreement therefore helps mitigate our exposure to increases in interest rates on our borrowings on the Credit Facility, which are at

 

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variable rates. See “ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations —Recent Developments – Interest Rate Cap Agreement ” for further discussion. As of September 30, 2013, the interest rate cap agreement had a minimal fair value.

To illustrate the potential impact of changes in interest rates on our net increase (decrease) in net assets resulting from operations, we have performed the following hypothetical analysis, which assumes that our balance sheet and interest rates remain constant as of September 30, 2013 and no further actions are taken to alter our existing interest rate sensitivity.

 

Basis Point Change (a)

   Increase in
Interest Income
     Increase (Decrease) in
Interest Expense
    Net Increase (Decrease) in
Net Assets Resulting from
Operations
 

Up 300 basis points

   $ 2,068       $ 1,407      $ 661   

Up 200 basis points

     698         938        (240

Up 100 basis points

     11         469        (458

Down 18 basis points

     —           (88     (88

 

(a) As of September 30, 2013, our effective average LIBOR was 0.18%.

Although management believes that this analysis is indicative of our existing interest rate sensitivity, it does not adjust for potential changes in credit quality, size and composition of our loan portfolio on the balance sheet and other business developments that could affect net increase (decrease) in net assets resulting from operations. Accordingly, actual results could differ significantly from those in the hypothetical analysis in the table above.

We may also experience risk associated with investing in securities of companies with foreign operations. Some of our portfolio companies have operations located outside the U.S. These risks include, but are not limited to, fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates, imposition of foreign taxes, changes in exportation regulations and political and social instability.

 

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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

 

Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

     71   

Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

     72   

Consolidated Statements of Assets and Liabilities as of September 30, 2013 and 2012

     73   

Consolidated Statements of Operations for the years ended September 30, 2013, 2012 and 2011

     74   

Consolidated Statements of Changes in Net Assets for the years ended September 30, 2013, 2012 and 2011

     75   

Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows for the years ended September 30, 2013, 2012 and 2011

     76   

Consolidated Schedules of Investments as of September 30, 2013

     77   

Consolidated Schedule of Investments as of September 30, 2012

     81   

Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements

     85   

 

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Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors of Gladstone Capital Corporation:

Our management is responsible for establishing and maintaining adequate internal control over financial reporting as defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Our internal control over financial reporting is designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and include those policies and procedures that: (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect our transactions and the dispositions of our assets; (2) provide reasonable assurance that our transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that our receipts and expenditures are being made only in accordance with appropriate authorizations; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of our assets that could have a material effect on our financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Therefore, even those systems determined to be effective can provide only reasonable assurance with respect to financial statement preparation and presentation.

Under the supervision and with the participation of our management, we assessed the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2013, using the criteria set forth by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) in Internal Control—Integrated Framework. Based on its assessment, management has concluded that our internal control over financial reporting was effective as of September 30, 2013.

The effectiveness of the Company’s internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2013 has been audited by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, as stated in their report which appears herein.

November 19, 2013

 

71


Report of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

To the Stockholders and Board of Directors of Gladstone Capital Corporation:

In our opinion, the accompanying consolidated statements of assets and liabilities, including the consolidated schedules of investments, and the related consolidated statements of operations, changes in net assets, and cash flows and the financial highlights present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of Gladstone Capital Corporation and its subsidiaries (the “Company”) at September 30, 2013 and 2012, the results of their operations and their cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended September 30, 2013 and the financial highlights for each of the five years in the period ended September 30, 2013, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America. In addition, in our opinion, the financial statement schedule listed in the accompanying index under Item 15(a)(2) presents fairly, in all material respects, the information set forth therein when read in conjunction with the related consolidated financial statements. Also, in our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of September 30, 2013, based on criteria established in Internal Control—Integrated Framework issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). The Company’s management is responsible for these financial statements and financial statement schedule, for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Management’s Annual Report on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express opinions on these financial statements, on the financial statement schedule, and on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our integrated audits. We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States). Those standards require that we plan and perform the audits to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement and whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audits of the financial statements included examining, on a test basis, evidence supporting the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements, assessing the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, and evaluating the overall financial statement presentation. Our audit of internal control over financial reporting included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, and testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk. Our audits also included performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. Our procedures included confirmation of securities at September 30, 2013, by correspondence with the custodian, and where replies were not received, we performed other auditing procedures. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinions.

A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (iii) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.

Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.

/s/ PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP

McLean, VA

November 19, 2013

 

72


GLADSTONE CAPITAL CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF ASSETS AND LIABILITIES

(DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE AMOUNTS)

 

                                         
     September 30,  
     2013     2012  

ASSETS

    

Investments at fair value:

    

Non-Control/Non-Affiliate investments (Cost of $218,713 and $266,500, respectively)

   $ 181,870      $ 234,171   

Control investments (Cost of $104,113 and $96,521, respectively)

     64,221        36,825   

Affiliate investments (Cost of $9,440 and $2,000, respectively)

     10,787        2,964   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total investments at fair value (Cost of $332,266 and $365,021, respectively)

     256,878        273,960   

Cash and cash equivalents

     13,900        9,857   

Restricted cash and cash equivalents

     1,176        805   

Interest receivable

     2,488        2,696   

Due from custodian

     16,473        2,177   

Deferred financing fees

     3,086        2,957   

Other assets

     1,090        950   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

TOTAL ASSETS

   $ 295,091      $ 293,402   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

LIABILITIES

    

Borrowings at fair value (Cost of $46,900 and $58,800, respectively)

   $ 47,102      $ 62,451   

Mandatorily redeemable preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share, $25 liquidation preference per share; 4,000,000 shares authorized; 1,539,882 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2013 and 2012, respectively

     38,497        38,497   

Accounts payable and accrued expenses

     494        475   

Interest payable

     170        185   

Fees due to Adviser (A)

     1,706        1,830   

Fee due to Administrator (A)

     126        174   

Other liabilities

     1,004        1,226   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

TOTAL LIABILITIES

     89,099        104,838   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Commitments and contingencies (B)

    

NET ASSETS

   $ 205,992      $ 188,564   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

ANALYSIS OF NET ASSETS

    

Common stock, $0.001 par value, 46,000,000 shares authorized and 21,000,160 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2013 and 2012, respectively

   $ 21      $ 21   

Capital in excess of par value

     322,936        324,714   

Notes receivable from employees (A)

     (175     (3,024

Cumulative net unrealized depreciation of investments

     (75,388     (91,061

Cumulative net unrealized appreciation of other

     (260     (3,651

Overdistributed net investment income (C)

     (100     (474

Accumulated net realized losses

     (41,042     (37,961
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

TOTAL NET ASSETS

   $ 205,992      $ 188,564   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

NET ASSET VALUE PER COMMON SHARE AT END OF YEAR

   $ 9.81      $ 8.98   
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(A) Refer to Note 4— Related Party Transactions for additional information.
(B) Refer to Note 12— Commitments and Contingencies for additional information.
(C) Refer to Note 10— Distributions to Common Stockholders for additional information.

THE ACCOMPANYING NOTES ARE AN INTEGRAL PART OF THESE CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS.

 

73


GLADSTONE CAPITAL CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE AMOUNTS)

 

                                                              
     Year ended September 30,  
     2013     2012     2011  

INVESTMENT INCOME

      

Interest income

      

Non-Control/Non-Affiliate investments

   $ 27,704      $ 31,745      $ 27,497   

Control investments

     5,481        4,072        5,139   

Affiliate investments

     216        —          —     

Cash and cash equivalents

     3        8        1   

Notes receivable from employees (A)

     129        252        431   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total interest income

     33,533        36,077        33,068   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Other income

      

Non-Control/Non-Affiliate investments

     2,621        4,245        1,518   

Control investments

     —          —          625   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total other income

     2,621        4,245        2,143   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total investment income

     36,154        40,322        35,211   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Base management fee (A)

     5,622        6,165        5,731   

Incentive fee (A)

     4,343        4,691        4,598   

Administration fee (A)

     647        753        729   

Interest expense on borrowings

     3,182        4,374        2,676   

Dividend expense on mandatorily redeemable preferred stock

     2,744        2,491        —     

Amortization of deferred financing fees

     1,211        1,243        1,420   

Professional fees

     514        1,218        1,118   

Other general and administrative expenses

     1,026        1,391        1,170   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Expenses before credits from Adviser

     19,289        22,326        17,442   

Credits to fees from Adviser (A)

     (1,521     (1,048     (643
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total expenses net of credits

     17,768        21,278        16,799   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

NET INVESTMENT INCOME

     18,386        19,044        18,412   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

REALIZED AND UNREALIZED GAIN (LOSS)

      

Net realized gain (loss):

      

Non-Control/Non-Affiliate investments

     27        (7,875     (1,122

Control investments

     (5,258     (4,944     (158
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net realized loss

     (5,231     (12,819     (1,280

Net unrealized (depreciation) appreciation:

      

Non-Control/Non-Affiliate investments

     (7,125     (1,414     (21,316

Control investments

     22,414        (10,790     (17,396

Affiliate investments

     384        1,010        (47

Other

     3,391        (3,039     528   
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total net unrealized appreciation (depreciation)

     19,064        (14,233     (38,231
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net realized and unrealized gain (loss)

     13,833        (27,052