Gladstone Capital Corporation
GLADSTONE CAPITAL CORP (Form: POS 8C, Received: 12/19/2017 17:32:33)
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As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on December 19, 2017

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, DC 20549

1933 Act File No. 333-208637

 

 

Form N-2

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

PRE-EFFECTIVE AMENDMENT NO.

POST-EFFECTIVE AMENDMENT NO. 5

 

 

GLADSTONE CAPITAL CORPORATION

(Exact name of registrant as specified in charter)

 

 

1521 WESTBRANCH DRIVE, SUITE 100

MCLEAN, VA 22102

(Address of principal executive offices)

Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (703) 287-5800

DAVID GLADSTONE

CHAIRMAN AND CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

GLADSTONE CAPITAL CORPORATION

1521 WESTBRANCH DRIVE, SUITE 100

MCLEAN, VIRGINIA 22102

(Name and address of agent for service)

 

 

COPIES TO:

Lori B. Morgan

Bass, Berry & Sims PLC

150 Third Avenue South

Suite 2800

Nashville, TN 37201

(615) 742-6280

(615) 742-6293 (Facsimile)

 

 

Approximate date of proposed public offering: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

If any securities being registered on this form will be offered on a delayed or continuous basis in reliance on Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered in connection with a dividend reinvestment plan, check the following box.  ☒

It is proposed that this filing will become effective (check appropriate box):

☒  When declared effective pursuant to Section 8(c).

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(c) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or until this Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to Section 8(c), may determine.

 

 

 


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The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the SEC is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED DECEMBER 19, 2017

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

 

 

LOGO

$300,000,000

COMMON STOCK

PREFERRED STOCK

SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

WARRANTS

DEBT SECURITIES

 

 

We may offer, from time to time, up to $300,000,000 aggregate initial offering price of our common stock, $0.001 par value per share, preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share, subscription rights, warrants representing rights to purchase shares of our common or preferred stock, or debt securities, or concurrent, separate offerings of these securities, which we refer to in this prospectus collectively as our Securities, in one or more offerings. The Securities may be offered at prices and on terms to be disclosed in one or more supplements to this prospectus. In the case of our common stock and warrants or rights to acquire such common stock hereunder, the offering price per share of our common stock by us, less any underwriting commissions or discounts, will not be less than the net asset value per share of our common stock at the time of the offering except (i) in connection with a rights offering to our existing common stockholders, (ii) with the consent of the holders of the majority of our outstanding stock, or (iii) under such other circumstances as the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) may permit. You should read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement carefully before you invest in our Securities.

We operate as a closed-end, non-diversified management investment company and have elected to be treated as a business development company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended. For federal income tax purposes, we have elected to be treated as a regulated investment company under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended. Our investment objectives are to: (1) achieve and grow current income by investing in debt securities of established businesses that we believe will provide stable earnings and cash flow to pay expenses, make principal and interest payments on our outstanding indebtedness and make distributions to stockholders that grow over time; and (2) provide our stockholders with long-term capital appreciation in the value of our assets by investing in equity securities of established businesses that we believe can grow over time to permit us to sell our equity investments for capital gains.

Our Securities may be offered directly to one or more purchasers, including existing stockholders in a rights offering, through agents designated from time to time by us, to or through underwriters or dealers, “at the market” to or through a market maker into an existing trading market or otherwise directly to one or more purchasers or through agents or through a combination of methods of sale. The prospectus supplement relating to the offering will identify any agents or underwriters involved in the sale of our Securities, and will disclose any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between us and our agents or underwriters or among our underwriters or the basis upon which such amount may be calculated. See “ Plan of Distribution .” We may not sell any of our Securities through agents, underwriters or dealers without delivery of a prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such Securities. Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) under the symbol “GLAD.” As of December 18, 2017, the last reported sales price for our common stock was $9.54. Our 6.00% Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock, or our Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock, is also traded on the Nasdaq under the symbol “GLADN.” As of December 18, 2017, the last reported sales price for our Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock was $25.85.

Please read this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement, if any, before investing, and keep it for future reference. It concisely sets forth important information about us that a prospective investor ought to know before investing in our securities. We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information about us with the SEC. This information is available free of charge by contacting us at 1521 Westbranch Drive, Suite 100, McLean, Virginia 22102, or by calling us collect at (703) 287-5800 or on our website at www.gladstonecapital.com . Information contained on our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and you should not consider that information to be part of this prospectus. The SEC also maintains a website at www.sec.gov that contains such information. This prospectus may not be used to consummate sales of securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.

The securities in which we invest generally would be rated below investment grade if they were rated by rating agencies. Below investment grade securities, which are often referred to as “junk,” have predominantly speculative characteristics with respect to the issuer’s capacity to pay interest and repay principal. They may also be difficult to value and are illiquid.

An investment in our Securities involves certain risks, including, among other things, risks relating to investments in securities of small, private and developing businesses. We describe some of these risks in the section entitled “ Risk Factors ,” which begins on page 8. Common shares of closed-end investment companies frequently trade at a discount to their net asset value and this may increase the risk of loss to purchasers of our Securities. You should carefully consider these risks together with all of the other information contained in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement before making a decision to purchase our Securities.

The SEC has not approved or disapproved of these securities or determined if this prospectus is truthful or complete. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

The date of this prospectus is                     


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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

     Page  

Prospectus Summary

     1  

The Offering

     3  

Fees and Expenses

     5  

Additional Information

     7  

Risk Factors

     8  

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

     25  

Use of Proceeds

     25  

Price Range of Common Stock and Distributions

     25  

Common Share Price Data

     26  

Ratio of Earnings to Fixed Charges

     27  

Consolidated Selected Financial Data

     28  

Selected Quarterly Data (Unaudited)

     29  

Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

     30  

Senior Securities

     51  

Business

     52  

Portfolio Companies

     67  

Management

     73  

Control Persons and Principal Stockholders

     85  

Dividend Reinvestment Plan

     86  

Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations

     87  

Regulation as a Business Development Company

     89  

Description of Our Securities

     91  

Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws

     95  

Share Repurchases

     97  

Plan of Distribution

     97  

Custodian, Transfer and Dividend Paying Agent and Registrar

     98  

Brokerage Allocation and Other Practices

     99  

Proxy Voting Policies and Procedures

     99  

Legal Matters

     100  

Experts

     100  

Index to Consolidated Financial Statements

     F-1  

We have not authorized any dealer, salesman or other person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying supplement to this prospectus. You must not rely upon any information or representation not contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or the accompanying prospectus supplement as if we had authorized it. This prospectus and any prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of any offer to buy any security other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do they constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such an offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction. The information contained in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement is accurate as of the dates on their respective covers only. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since such dates.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the SEC using the “shelf” registration process. Under the shelf registration process, we may offer, from time to time, up to $300,000,000 of our Securities on terms to be determined at the time of the offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the Securities that we may offer. Each time we use this prospectus to offer Securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. To the extent required by law, we will amend or supplement the information contained in this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement to reflect any material changes to such information subsequent to the date of the prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement and prior to the completion of any offering pursuant to the prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. Please carefully read this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under “ Additional Information and “ Risk Factors before you make an investment decision.

 


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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY

The following summary highlights some of the information in this prospectus. It is not complete and may not contain all the information that you may want to consider. You should read the entire prospectus and any prospectus supplement carefully, including the section entitled “Risk Factors.” Except where the context suggests otherwise, the terms “we,” “us,” “our,” the “Company” and “Gladstone Capital” refer to Gladstone Capital Corporation; “Adviser” refers to Gladstone Management Corporation; “Administrator” refers to Gladstone Administration, LLC; “Gladstone Commercial” refers to Gladstone Commercial Corporation; “Gladstone Investment” refers to Gladstone Investment Corporation; “Gladstone Land” refers to Gladstone Land Corporation; “Gladstone Securities” refers to Gladstone Securities, LLC; “Affiliated Public Funds” refers collectively to Gladstone Commercial, Gladstone Investment and Gladstone Land and “Gladstone Companies” refers to the Affiliated Public Funds, Adviser, Administrator and their affiliated companies.

General

We were incorporated under the General Corporation Laws of the State of Maryland on May 30, 2001 and completed our initial public offering on August 24, 2001. We are externally managed and operate as a closed-end, non-diversified management investment company and have elected to be treated as a business development company (“BDC”) under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “1940 Act”). For federal income tax purposes, we have elected to be treated as a regulated investment company (“RIC”) under Subchapter M of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”). We intend to continue to qualify as a RIC for federal income tax purposes and obtain favorable RIC tax treatment by meeting certain requirements, including minimum distribution requirements. We were established for the purpose of investing in debt and equity securities of established private businesses operating in the United States (“U.S.”).

Our Investment Objectives and Strategy

We were established for the purpose of investing in debt and equity securities of established private businesses operating in the U.S. Our investment objectives are to: (1) achieve and grow current income by investing in debt securities of established lower middle market companies (which we generally define as companies with annual earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (“EBITDA”) of $3 million to $15 million) in the U.S. that we believe will provide stable earnings and cash flow to pay expenses, make principal and interest payments on our outstanding indebtedness and make distributions to stockholders that grow over time; and (2) provide our stockholders with long-term capital appreciation in the value of our assets by investing in equity securities of established businesses that we believe can grow over time to permit us to sell our equity investments for capital gains. To achieve our objectives, our primary investment strategy is to invest in several categories of debt and equity securities, with each investment generally ranging from $8 million to $30 million, although investment size may vary, depending upon our total assets or available capital at the time of investment. We lend to borrowers that need funds for growth capital, to finance acquisitions, or to recapitalize or refinance their existing debt facilities. We seek to avoid investing in high-risk, early-stage enterprises. Our targeted portfolio companies are generally considered too small for the larger capital marketplace. We expect that our investment portfolio over time will consist of approximately 90.0% debt investments and 10.0% equity investments, at cost. As of September 30, 2017, our investment portfolio was made up of approximately 90.1% debt investments and 9.9% equity investments, at cost.

We invest by ourselves or jointly with other funds and/or management of the portfolio company, depending on the opportunity. If we are participating in an investment with one or more co-investors, our investment is likely to be smaller than if we were investing alone.

In July 2012, the SEC granted us an exemptive order (the “Co-Investment Order”) that expands our ability to co-invest with certain of our affiliates under certain circumstances and any future BDC or closed-end management investment company that is advised (or sub-advised if it controls the fund) by the Adviser, or any combination of the foregoing, subject to the conditions in the SEC’s order. We believe this ability to co-invest will continue to enhance our ability to further our investment objectives and strategies.

In general, our investments in debt securities have a term of no more than seven years, accrue interest at variable rates (based on the one month London Interbank Offered Rate (“LIBOR”)) and, to a lesser extent, at fixed rates. We seek debt instruments that pay interest monthly or, at a minimum, quarterly, and which may include a yield enhancement, such as a success fee or deferred interest provision and are primarily interest only with all principal and any accrued but unpaid interest due at maturity. Generally, success fees accrue at a set rate and are contractually due upon a change of control of the business. Some debt securities have deferred interest whereby some portion of the interest payment is added to the principal balance so that the interest is paid, together with the principal, at maturity. This form of deferred interest is often called paid-in-kind (“PIK”) interest. Typically, our equity investments take the form of preferred or common stock, limited liability company interests, or warrants or options to purchase the foregoing. Often, these equity investments occur in connection with our original investment, recapitalizing a business, or refinancing existing debt.

 

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As of September 30, 2017, our investment portfolio consisted of investments in 47 companies located in 22 states in 19 different industries with an aggregate fair value of $352.4 million. Since our initial public offering in 2001 through September 30, 2017, we have invested in over 217 different companies, while making 176 consecutive monthly or quarterly cash distributions to common stockholders totaling approximately $297.8 million, or $17.77 per share. We expect that our investment portfolio will primarily include the following four categories of investments in private companies operating in the U.S.:

 

   

Senior Secured Debt Securities : We seek to invest a portion of our assets in senior secured debt securities also known as senior loans, secured first lien loans, lines of credit and senior notes. Using its assets as collateral, the borrower typically uses senior debt to cover a substantial portion of the funding needs of its business. The senior secured debt security usually takes the form of first priority liens on all, or substantially all, of the assets of the business. Senior secured debt securities may include investments sourced from the syndicated loan market.

 

   

Senior Secured Subordinated Debt Securities : We seek to invest a portion of our assets in secured second lien debt securities, also known as senior subordinated loans and senior subordinated notes. These secured second lien debts rank junior to the borrowers’ senior debt and may be secured by a first priority lien on a portion of the assets of the business and may be designated as second lien notes (including our participation and investment in syndicated second lien loans). Additionally, we may receive other yield enhancements, such as success fees, in connection with these senior secured subordinated debt securities.

 

   

Junior Subordinated Debt Securities : We seek to invest a portion of our assets in junior subordinated debt securities, also known as subordinated loans, subordinated notes and mezzanine loans. These junior subordinated debts may be secured by certain assets of the borrower or unsecured loans. Additionally, we may receive other yield enhancements in addition to or in lieu of success fees, such as warrants to buy common and preferred stock or limited liability interests in connection with these junior subordinated debt securities.

 

   

Preferred and Common Equity/Equivalents : In some cases we will purchase equity securities which consist of preferred and common equity or limited liability company interests, or warrants or options to acquire such securities, and are in combination with our debt investment in a business. Additionally, we may receive equity investments derived from restructurings on some of our existing debt investments. In some cases, we will own a significant portion of the equity and in other cases we may have voting control of the businesses in which we invest.

Additionally, pursuant to the 1940 Act, we must maintain at least 70.0% of our total assets in qualifying assets, as defined in the 1940 Act, which generally include each of the investment types listed above. Therefore, the 1940 Act permits us to invest up to 30.0% of our assets in other non-qualifying assets. See “ Regulation as a Business Development Company — Qualifying Assets ” for a discussion of the types of qualifying assets in which we are permitted to invest pursuant to Section 55(a) of the 1940 Act.

Because the majority of the loans in our portfolio consist of term debt in private companies that typically cannot or will not expend the resources to have their debt securities rated by a credit rating agency, we expect that most, if not all, of the debt securities we acquire will be unrated. Investors should assume that these loans would be rated below what is today considered “investment grade” quality. Investments rated below investment grade are often referred to as high yield securities or junk bonds and may be considered higher risk, as compared to investment-grade debt instruments. In addition, many of the debt securities we hold typically do not amortize prior to maturity.

Our Investment Adviser and Administrator

We are externally managed by our Adviser, an affiliate of ours, under an investment advisory and management agreement (the “Advisory Agreement”) and another of our affiliates, the Administrator provides administrative services to us pursuant to a contractual agreement (the “Administration Agreement”). Each of the Adviser and Administrator are privately-held companies that are indirectly owned and controlled by David Gladstone, our chairman and chief executive officer. Mr. Gladstone and Terry Lee Brubaker, our vice chairman and chief operating officer, also serve on the board of directors of the Adviser, the board of managers of the Administrator, and serve as executive officers of the Adviser and the Administrator. The Administrator employs, among others, our chief financial officer and treasurer, chief valuation officer, chief compliance officer, general counsel and secretary (who also serves as the president of the Administrator) and their respective staffs. The Adviser and Administrator have extensive experience in our lines of business and also provide investment advisory and administrative services, respectively, to our affiliates, including, but not limited to: Gladstone Commercial, a publicly-traded real estate investment trust; Gladstone Investment, a publicly-traded BDC and RIC; and Gladstone Land, a publicly-traded real estate investment trust. In the future, the Adviser and Administrator may provide investment advisory and administrative services, respectively, to other funds and companies, both public and private.

The Adviser was organized as a corporation under the laws of the State of Delaware on July 2, 2002, and is a SEC registered investment adviser under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, as amended. The Administrator was organized as a limited liability company under the laws of the State of Delaware on March 18, 2005. The Adviser and Administrator are headquartered in McLean, Virginia, a suburb of Washington, D.C. The Adviser also has offices in other states. We have been externally managed by the Adviser pursuant to the Advisory Agreement since October 1, 2004 pursuant to which we pay the Adviser a base management fee and an incentive fee for its services.

 

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THE OFFERING

We may offer, from time to time, up to $300,000,000 of our Securities, on terms to be determined at the time of the offering. Our Securities may be offered at prices and on terms to be disclosed in one or more prospectus supplements. In the case of an offering of our common stock and warrants or rights to acquire such common stock hereunder in any offering, the offering price per share, exclusive of any underwriting commission or discount, will not be less than the net asset value (“NAV”) per share of our common stock at the time of the offering except (i) in connection with a rights offering to our existing stockholders, (ii) with the consent of the majority of our common stockholders, or (iii) under such other circumstances as the SEC may permit. If we were to sell shares of our common stock below our then current NAV per share, such sales would result in an immediate dilution to the NAV per share. This dilution would occur as a result of the sale of shares at a price below the then current NAV per share of our common stock and a proportionately greater decrease in a stockholder’s interest in our earnings and assets and voting interest in us than the increase in our assets resulting from such issuance.

Our Securities may be offered directly to one or more purchasers, including existing stockholders in a rights offering, by us or through agents designated from time to time by us, or to or through underwriters or dealers. The prospectus supplement relating to the offering will disclose the terms of the offering, including the name or names of any agents or underwriters involved in the sale of our Securities by us, the purchase price, and any fee, commission or discount arrangement between us and our agents or underwriters or among our underwriters or the basis upon which such amount may be calculated. See “ Plan of Distribution. ” We may not sell any of our Securities through agents, underwriters or dealers without delivery of a prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of our Securities.

Set forth below is additional information regarding the offering of our Securities:

 

Common Stock Trading Symbol (Nasdaq)            GLAD
6.00% Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock (the “Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock”) Trading Symbol (Nasdaq)    GLADN
Use of Proceeds    Unless otherwise specified in any prospectus supplement, we expect to use the net proceeds from the sale of our Securities first to pay down existing short-term debt, then to make investments in lower middle market businesses in accordance with our investment objectives, with any remaining proceeds to be used for other general corporate purposes. See “ Use of Proceeds.
Dividends and Distributions    We have paid monthly distributions to the holders of our common stock since October 2003 (and prior to that quarterly distributions since January 2002) and generally intend to continue to do so. In September 2017 we issued, and in October 2017 we made our first distribution on, our Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock and have paid monthly distributions thereafter. The amount of monthly distributions on our capital stock is generally determined by our Board of Directors on a quarterly basis and is based on management’s estimate of the fiscal year’s taxable income. See “ Price Range of Common Stock and Distributions. ” Because our distributions to common stockholders are based on estimates of taxable income that may differ from actual results, future distributions payable to our common stockholders may also include, and past distributions have included, a return of capital. Such return of capital distributions may increase an investor’s tax liability for capital gains upon the sale of our shares by reducing the investor’s tax basis for such shares. See “ Risk Factors—Risks Related to an Investment in Our Securities—Distributions to our stockholders have included and may in the future include a return of capital. ” Certain additional amounts may be deemed as distributed to common stockholders for income tax purposes and may also constitute a return of capital. Other types of securities we might offer will likely pay distributions in accordance with their terms.
Taxation    We intend to continue to elect to be treated for federal income tax purposes as a RIC. So long as we continue to qualify, we generally will pay no corporate-level federal income taxes on any ordinary income or capital gains that we distribute to our stockholders. To maintain our RIC status, we must meet specified source-of-income and asset diversification requirements and distribute, for each of our taxable years, at least 90.0% of our taxable ordinary income and realized net short-term capital gains in excess of realized net long-term capital losses, if any, out of assets legally available for distribution. See “ Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.

 

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Trading at a Discount    Common shares of closed-end investment companies frequently trade at a discount to their NAV. The possibility that our common shares may trade at a discount to our NAV is separate and distinct from the risk that our NAV per common share may decline. We cannot predict whether our common shares will trade above, at or below NAV, although during the past three years, our common stock has often traded, and at times significantly, below NAV. See “ Risk Factors – Risks related to an Investment in our Securities – Shares of closed-end investment companies frequently trade at a discount from NAV .”
Certain Anti-Takeover Provisions    Our Board of Directors is divided into three classes of directors serving staggered three-year terms. This structure is intended to provide us with a greater likelihood of continuity of management, which may be necessary for us to realize the full value of our investments. A classified board of directors also may serve to deter hostile takeovers or proxy contests, as may certain provisions of Maryland law and other measures we have adopted. See “ Certain Provisions of Maryland Law and of Our Charter and Bylaws.
Dividend Reinvestment Plan    Our transfer agent, Computershare, Inc., offers a dividend reinvestment plan for our common stockholders. This is an “opt in” dividend reinvestment plan, meaning that stockholders may elect to have their cash dividends automatically reinvested in additional shares of our common stock. Stockholders who do not so elect will receive their dividends in cash. Stockholders who receive distributions in the form of stock will be subject to the same federal, state and local tax consequences as stockholders who elect to receive their distributions in cash. See “ Dividend Reinvestment Plan. ” There is no dividend reinvestment plan for our Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock.
Management Arrangements    Gladstone Management Corporation serves as the Adviser, and Gladstone Administration, LLC serves as the Administrator. For a description of the Adviser, the Administrator, the Gladstone Companies and the contractual arrangements with these companies, see “ Management—Certain Transactions.

 

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FEES AND EXPENSES

The following table is intended to assist you in understanding the costs and expenses that an investor in this offering will bear directly or indirectly. We caution you that some of the percentages indicated in the table below are estimates and may vary. Except where the context suggests otherwise, whenever this prospectus contains a reference to fees or expenses paid by “us” or “Gladstone Capital,” or that “we” will pay fees or expenses, stockholders will indirectly bear such fees or expenses as investors in Gladstone Capital. The following percentages are annualized and have been calculated based on actual expenses incurred in the quarter ended September 30, 2017 and average net assets attributable to common stockholders for the quarter ended September 30, 2017.

 

Stockholder Transaction Expenses:

  

Sales load (as a percentage of offering price) (1)

     —  

Offering expenses (as a percentage of offering price) (1)

     —  

Dividend reinvestment plan expenses (per sales transaction fee) (2)

    

Up to $25.00
Transaction
fee
 
 
 

Total stockholder transaction expenses (1)

     —  

Annual expenses (as a percentage of net assets attributable to common stock) (3) :

  

Base management fee (4)

     2.84

Loan servicing fee (5)

     2.07

Incentive fee (20% of realized capital gains and 20% of pre-incentive fee net investment income) (6)

     2.36

Interest payments on borrowed funds (7)

     2.20

Dividend expense on mandatorily redeemable preferred stock (8)

     2.10

Other expenses (9)

     1.36
  

 

 

 

Total annual expenses (10)

     12.93

 

(1) The amounts set forth in this table do not reflect the impact of any sales load, sales commission or other offering expenses borne by Gladstone Capital and its stockholders. The prospectus supplement relating to an offering of securities pursuant to this prospectus will disclose the estimated offering price and the estimated offering expenses and total stockholder transaction expenses borne by Gladstone Capital and its stockholders as a percentage of the offering price. In the event that securities to which this prospectus relates are sold to or through underwriters, the prospectus supplement will also disclose the applicable sales load.
(2) The expenses of the dividend reinvestment plan, if any, are included in stock record expenses, a component of “Other expenses.” If a participant elects by written notice to the plan agent prior to termination of his or her account to have the plan agent sell part or all of the shares held by the plan agent in the participant’s account and remit the proceeds to the participant, the plan agent is authorized to deduct a transaction fee, plus per share brokerage commissions, from the proceeds. The participants in the dividend reinvestment plan will also bear a transaction fee, plus per share brokerage commissions, incurred with respect to open market purchases. See “ Dividend Reinvestment Plan ” for information on the dividend reinvestment plan.
(3) The percentages presented in this table are gross of credits to any fees.
(4) In accordance with the Advisory Agreement, our annual base management fee is 1.75% (0.4375% quarterly) of our average gross assets, which are defined as total assets of Gladstone Capital, including investments made with proceeds of borrowings, less any uninvested cash or cash equivalents resulting from borrowings, and adjusted appropriately for any share issuances or repurchases. In accordance with the requirements of the SEC, the table above shows Gladstone Capital’s base management fee as a percentage of average net assets attributable to common shareholders. For purposes of the table, the gross base management fee has been converted to 2.84% of the average net assets as of September 30, 2017 by dividing the total dollar amount of the management fee by Gladstone Capital’s average net assets. The base management fee for the quarter ended September 30, 2017 before application of any credits was $1.6 million.

Under the Advisory Agreement, the Adviser has provided and continues to provide managerial assistance to our portfolio companies. It may also provide services other than managerial assistance to our portfolio companies and receive fees therefor. Such services may include, but are not limited to: (i) assistance obtaining, sourcing or structuring credit facilities, long term loans or additional equity from unaffiliated third parties; (ii) negotiating important contractual financial relationships; (iii) consulting services regarding restructuring of the portfolio company and financial modeling as it relates to raising additional debt and equity capital from unaffiliated third parties; and (iv) primary role in interviewing, vetting and negotiating employment contracts with candidates in connection with adding and retaining key portfolio company management team members. Generally, at the end of each quarter, 100.0% of these fees are non-contractually, unconditionally and irrevocably credited against the base management fee that we would otherwise be required to pay to the Adviser; however, a small percentage of certain of such fees, primarily for valuation of the portfolio company, is retained by the Adviser in the form of reimbursement at cost for certain tasks completed by personnel of the Adviser. For the quarter ended September 30, 2017, the base management fee credit was $0.3 million. See “Management—Certain Transactions.”

(5) The Adviser services, administers and collects on the loans held by Gladstone Business Loan, LLC (“Business Loan”), in return for which the Adviser receives a 1.5% annual loan servicing fee payable monthly by Business Loan based on the monthly aggregate balance of loans held by Business Loan in accordance with our Fifth Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, with KeyBank National Association (“KeyBank”), as administrative agent, lead arranger and a lender, as amended (the “Credit Facility”). For the three months ended September 30, 2017, the total loan servicing fee was $1.1 million. The entire loan servicing fee paid to the Adviser by Business Loan is generally non-contractually, unconditionally and irrevocably credited against the base management fee otherwise payable to the Adviser since Business Loan is a consolidated subsidiary of the Company, and overall, the base management fee (including any loan servicing fee) cannot exceed 1.75% of total assets (as reduced by cash and cash equivalents pledged to creditors) during any given fiscal year pursuant to the Advisory Agreement. See “ Management—Certain Transactions—Investment Advisory and Management Agreemen t” and footnote 6 below.

 

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(6) In accordance with our Advisory Agreement, the incentive fee consists of two parts: an income-based fee and a capital gains-based fee. The income-based fee is payable quarterly in arrears, and equals 20.0% of the excess, if any, of our pre-incentive fee net investment income that exceeds a 1.75% quarterly (7.0% annualized) hurdle rate of our net assets, subject to a “catch-up” provision measured as of the end of each calendar quarter. The “catch-up” provision requires us to pay 100.0% of our pre-incentive fee net investment income with respect to that portion of such income, if any, that exceeds the hurdle rate but is less than 125.0% of the quarterly hurdle rate (or 2.1875%) in any calendar quarter (8.75% annualized). The catch-up provision is meant to provide the Adviser with 20.0% of our pre-incentive fee net investment income as if a hurdle rate did not apply when our pre-incentive fee net investment income exceeds 125.0% of the quarterly hurdle rate in any calendar quarter (8.75% annualized). The income-based incentive fee is computed and paid on income that may include interest that is accrued but not yet received in cash. Our pre-incentive fee net investment income used to calculate this part of the income-based incentive fee is also included in the amount of our gross assets used to calculate the 1.75% base management fee (see footnote 4 above). The capital gains-based incentive fee equals 20.0% of our net realized capital gains since our inception, if any, computed net of all realized capital losses and unrealized capital depreciation since our inception, less any prior payments, and is payable at the end of each fiscal year. We have not recorded any capital gains-based incentive fee from our inception through September 30, 2017. The income-based incentive fee for the quarter ended September 30, 2017 was $1.3 million.

From time to time, the Adviser has non-contractually, unconditionally and irrevocably agreed to waive a portion of the incentive fees, to the extent net investment income did not cover 100.0% of the distributions to common stockholders during the period. For the quarter ended September 30, 2017, the incentive fee credit was $0.3 million. There can be no guarantee that the Adviser will continue to credit any portion of the fees under the Advisory Agreement in the future.

Examples of how the incentive fee would be calculated are as follows:

 

   

Assuming pre-incentive fee net investment income of 0.55%, there would be no income-based incentive fee because such income would not exceed the hurdle rate of 1.75%.

 

   

Assuming pre-incentive fee net investment income of 2.00%, the income-based incentive fee would be as follows:

= 100% × (2.00% - 1.75%)

= 0.25%

 

   

Assuming pre-incentive fee net investment income of 2.30%, the income-based incentive fee would be as follows:

= (100% × (“catch-up”: 2.1875% - 1.75%)) + (20% × (2.30% - 2.1875%))

= (100% × 0.4375%) + (20% × 0.1125%)

= 0.4375% + 0.0225%

= 0.46%

 

   

Assuming net realized capital gains of 6% and realized capital losses and unrealized capital depreciation of 1%, the capital gains-based incentive fee would be as follows:

= 20% × (6% - 1%)

= 20% × 5%

= 1%

For a more detailed discussion of the calculation of the two-part incentive fee, see “ Management—Certain Transactions—Investment Advisory and Management Agreement.

 

(7) Includes amortization of deferred financing costs. As of September 30, 2017, we had $93.0 million in borrowings outstanding on our Credit Facility.

 

(8) Includes amortization of deferred financing costs related to our 6.75% Series 2021 Term Preferred Stock (the “Series 2021 Term Preferred Stock”), and Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock, as well as amounts paid to preferred stockholders during the three months ended September 30, 2017. See “ Description of Our Securities—Preferred Stock—Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock ” for additional information.

 

(9) Includes our overhead expenses, including payments under the Administration Agreement based on our projected allocable portion of overhead and other expenses incurred by the Administrator in performing its obligations under the Administration Agreement. See “ Management—Certain Transactions— Investment Advisory and Management Agreement ” and “ Business—Transactions with Related Parties—Administration Agreement.

 

(10) Total annualized gross expenses, based on actual amounts incurred for the quarter ended September 30, 2017, would be $28.5 million. After all non-contractual, unconditional and irrevocable credits described in footnote 4, footnote 5 and footnote 6 above are applied to the base management fee, the loan servicing fee, and the incentive fee, total annualized expenses after fee credits, based on actual amounts incurred for the quarter ended September 30, 2017, would be $21.4 million or 9.7% as a percentage of net assets.

 

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Examples

The following examples demonstrate the projected dollar amount of total cumulative expenses that would be incurred over various periods with respect to a hypothetical investment in our Securities. In calculating the following expense amounts, we have assumed that our quarterly operating expenses would remain at the levels set forth in the table above and are gross of credits to any fees. The amounts set forth below do not reflect the impact of sales load or offering expenses to be borne by Gladstone Capital or its stockholders. In the prospectus supplement relating to an offering of securities pursuant to this prospectus, the examples below will be restated to reflect the impact of the estimated offering expenses borne by Gladstone Capital and its stockholders and, in the event that securities to which this prospectus relates are sold to or through underwriters, the impact of the applicable sales load. The examples below and the expenses in the table above should not be considered a representation of our future expenses, and actual expenses (including the cost of debt, incentive fees, if any, and other expenses) may be greater or less than those shown. While the example assumes, as required by the SEC, a 5% annual return, our performance will vary and may result in a return greater or less than 5%.

 

     1 Year      3 Years      5 Years      10 Years  

You would pay the following expenses on a $1,000 investment:

           

assuming a 5% annual return consisting entirely of ordinary income (1)(2)

   $ 116      $ 327      $ 510      $ 871  

assuming a 5% annual return consisting entirely of capital gains (2)(3)

   $ 125      $ 348      $ 539      $ 904  

 

(1) While the example assumes, as required by the SEC, a 5% annual return, our performance will vary and may result in a return greater or less than 5%. Additionally, we have assumed that the entire amount of such 5% annual return would constitute ordinary income as we have not historically realized positive capital gains (computed net of all realized capital losses) on our investments. Because the assumed 5% annual return is significantly below the hurdle rate of 7% (annualized) that we must achieve under the investment advisory and management agreement to trigger the payment of an income-based incentive fee, we have assumed, for purposes of this example, that no income-based incentive fee would be payable if we realized a 5% annual return on our investments.
(2) While the example assumes reinvestment of all dividends and distributions at NAV, participants in our dividend reinvestment plan will receive a number of shares of our common stock, determined by dividing the total dollar amount of the dividend payable to a participant by the average cost of shares of our common stock purchased in the open market in the period beginning on or before the payment date of the distribution and ending when the plan agent has expended for such purchases all of the cash that would have been otherwise payable to participants. See “ Dividend Reinvestment Plan ” for additional information regarding our dividend reinvestment plan.
(3) For purposes of this example, we have assumed that the entire amount of such 5% annual return would constitute capital gains and that no accumulated capital losses or unrealized depreciation exist that would have to be overcome first before a capital gains based incentive fee is payable.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form N-2 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, which we refer to as the Securities Act, with respect to the Securities offered by this prospectus. This prospectus, which is a part of the registration statement, does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement or exhibits and schedules thereto. For further information with respect to our business and our Securities, reference is made to the registration statement, including all of the amendments, exhibits and schedules thereto.

We also certain file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the Exchange Act. Such reports, proxy statements and other information, as well as the registration statement and the amendments, exhibits and schedules thereto, can be inspected at the public reference facilities maintained by the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Information about the operation of the public reference facilities may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information regarding registrants, including us, that file such information electronically with the SEC. The address of the SEC’s website is http://www.sec.gov . Copies of such material may also be obtained from the Public Reference Room of the SEC at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549, at prescribed rates. Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq and our corporate website is located at www.gladstonecapital.com . The information contained on, or accessible through, our website is not a part of this prospectus.

We make available free of charge on our website our annual report on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, and all amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC.

We also furnish to our stockholders annual reports, which include annual financial information that has been examined and reported on, with an opinion expressed, by our independent registered public accounting firm. See “ Experts.

 

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R ISK FACTORS

You should carefully consider the risks described below and all other information contained in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before making a decision to purchase our securities. The risks and uncertainties described below are not the only ones facing us. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us, or not presently deemed material by us, may also impair our operations and performance.

If any of the following risks actually occur, our business, financial condition or results of operations could be materially adversely affected. If that happens, the trading price of our Securities and NAV of our common stock could decline, and you may lose all or part of your investment.

Risks Related to the Economy

Market conditions could negatively impact our business, results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

The market in which we operate is affected by a number of factors that are largely beyond our control but can nonetheless have a potentially significant, negative impact on us. These factors include, among other things:

 

   

changes in interest rates and credit spreads;

 

   

the availability of credit, including the price, terms and conditions under which is can be obtained;

 

   

the quality, pricing and availability of suitable investments and credit losses with respect to our investments;

 

   

the ability to obtain accurate market-based valuations;

 

   

loan values relative to the value of the underlying assets;

 

   

default rates on the loans underlying our investments and the amount of related losses;

 

   

prepayment rates, delinquency rates and legislative / regulatory changes with respect to our investments and loans, and the timing and amount of servicer advances;

 

   

competition;

 

   

the actual and perceived state of the economy and public capital markets generally;

 

   

the impact of potential changes to the tax code; and

 

   

the attractiveness of other types of investments relative to investments in lower middle market companies generally.

Changes in these factors are difficult to predict, and a change in one factor can affect other factors resulting in adverse effects to our financial condition.

The illiquidity of our investments may make it difficult for us to sell such investments if required. As a result, we may realize significantly less than the value at which we have recorded our investments.

Given the volatility and dislocation that the capital markets have historically experienced, many BDCs have faced, and may in the future face, a challenging environment in which to raise capital. We may in the future have difficulty accessing debt and equity capital, and a severe disruption in the global financial markets or deterioration in credit and financing conditions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. In addition, significant changes in the capital markets have had, and may in the future have, a negative effect on the valuations of our investments and on the potential for liquidity events involving our investments. An inability to raise capital, and any required sale of our investments for liquidity purposes, could have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition or results of operations.

Market interest rates may have an effect on the value of our securities.

One of the factors that will influence the price of our securities will be the distribution yield on our securities (as a percentage of the price of our securities) relative to market interest rates. An increase in market interest rates, which are currently at low levels relative to historical rates, may lead prospective purchasers of our securities to expect a higher distribution yield and higher interest rates would likely increase our borrowing costs and potentially decrease funds available for distribution. Thus, higher market interest rates could cause the market price of our securities to decrease.

 

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Rising interest rates may negatively impact our investments and have an adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Over the past year, the Federal Reserve has made gradual increases in the federal funds rate, the latest increase occurring December 13, 2017 by a quarter percentage point of 1.25% to 1.5%, with similar increases in March and June of calendar year 2017. A substantial portion of our debt investments have variable interest rates that reset periodically and are generally based on LIBOR with a floor, so an increase in interest rates above the applicable floor may make it more difficult for our portfolio companies to meet their debt servicing obligations to us, which could result in a default under their loan documents with us. To the extent that interest rates increase, this may negatively impact the operating performance of our portfolio companies as they shift cash from other productive uses to the payment of interest or may cause our portfolio companies to refinance or otherwise repay our debt investments earlier than they otherwise would, requiring us to incur management time and expense to re-deploy such proceeds, including on terms that may not be as favorable as our existing loans. There can be no guarantee the Federal Reserve will continue to raise rates at the gradual pace they originally proposed.

The current U.S. presidential administration, or the “Administration,” may make substantial changes to certain regulations that may adversely affect our business.

The Administration has called for substantial change to fiscal and tax policies, which may include comprehensive tax reform, including significant changes to taxation of business entities and the deductibility of interest expense. On February 3, 2017, President Trump signed an executive order calling for the Administration to review U.S. financial laws and regulations in order to determine their consistency with a set of core principles identified in the order. Some areas identified as subject to potential change, amendment or repeal include the Dodd-Frank Act, the Consumer Protection Act, the Volcker Rule, credit risk retention requirements and the authorities of the Federal Reserve and the Financial Stability Oversight Council. We cannot predict which, if any, of these or other actions will be taken or, if taken, their effect on the financial stability of the credit market in which we operate. Such actions could have a significant adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and cash flows.

Changes in the tax laws as a result of the potential enactment of the Tax Cuts and JOBS Act could impact our operations and profitability.

On November 16, 2017, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the Tax Cuts and JOBS Act. On December 2, 2017, the U.S. Senate passed a revised version of the Tax Cuts and JOBS Act, and on December 15, 2017, a conference committee agreed to a compromise bill (the “Tax Reform Bill”). The Tax Reform Bill, if enacted into law, would make significant changes to the U.S. federal income tax rules applicable to both individuals and entities, including corporations. There is uncertainty as to the likelihood and timing of the enactment of the Tax Reform Bill and we are unable to determine what the impact of any such legislation could have on our operations or profitability. You should consult with your tax advisor with respect to the status of the Tax Reform Bills and its potential effect on your investment in our securities.

Pending legislation may allow us to incur additional leverage.

As a BDC, under the 1940 Act we generally are not permitted to incur indebtedness unless immediately after such borrowing we have an asset coverage for total borrowings of at least 200% (i.e., the amount of debt may not exceed 50% of the value of our total assets or we may borrow an amount equal to 100% of net assets). The Financial CHOICE Act of 2017, which was passed by the U.S. House of Representatives in June 2017, would modify this section of the 1940 Act and increase the amount of debt that BDCs may incur by modifying the asset coverage percentage from 200% to 150%. As a result, if such legislation is passed with no significant modifications, we may be able to incur additional indebtedness in the future and therefore your risk of an investment in us may increase.

We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly and annual results based on the impact of inflation in the U.S.

The majority of our portfolio companies are in industries that are directly impacted by inflation, such as consumer goods and services and manufacturing. Our portfolio companies may not be able to pass on to customers increases in their costs of operations which could greatly affect their operating results, impacting their ability to repay our loans. In addition, any projected future decreases in our portfolio companies’ operating results due to inflation could adversely impact the fair value of those investments. Any decreases in the fair value of our investments could result in future unrealized losses and therefore reduce our net assets resulting from operations.

The recent volatility of oil and natural gas prices could impair certain of our portfolio companies’ operations and ability to satisfy obligations to their respective lenders and investors, including us, which could negatively impact our financial condition.

Our portfolio includes a concentration of companies in the oil and gas industry with the fair value of these investments representing approximately $34.7 million, or 9.9% of our total portfolio at fair value as of September 30, 2017. These businesses provide services to oil and gas companies and are indirectly impacted by the prices of, and demand for, oil and natural gas, which have recently experienced volatility, including significant decline in prices, and such volatility could continue or increase in the future. A substantial or extended decline in oil and natural gas demand or prices may adversely affect the business, financial condition, cash flows, liquidity or results of operations of these portfolio companies and might impair their ability to meet capital expenditure obligations and financial commitments. A prolonged or continued decline in oil prices could therefore have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

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Risks Related to Our Investments

We operate in a highly competitive market for investment opportunities.

There has been increased competitive pressure in the BDC and investment company marketplace for senior and senior subordinated debt, resulting in lower yields for increasingly riskier investments. A large number of entities compete with us and make the types of investments that we seek to make in lower middle market companies. We compete with public and private buyout funds, commercial and investment banks, commercial financing companies, and, to the extent that they provide an alternative form of financing, hedge funds. Many of our competitors are substantially larger and have considerably greater financial, technical and marketing resources than we do. For example, some competitors may have a lower cost of funds and access to funding sources that are not available to us. In addition, some of our competitors may have higher risk tolerances or different risk assessments, which would allow them to consider a wider variety of investments and establish more relationships than us. Furthermore, many of our competitors are not subject to the regulatory restrictions that the 1940 Act imposes on us as a BDC. The competitive pressures we face could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Also, as a result of this competition, we may not be able to take advantage of attractive investment opportunities from time to time and we can offer no assurance that we will be able to identify and make investments that are consistent with our investment objective. We do not seek to compete based on the interest rates we offer, and we believe that some of our competitors may make loans with interest rates that will be comparable to or lower than the rates we offer. We may lose investment opportunities if we do not match our competitors’ pricing, terms, and structure. However, if we match our competitors’ pricing, terms, and structure, we may experience decreased net interest income and increased risk of credit loss.

Our investments in lower middle market companies are extremely risky and could cause you to lose all or a part of your investment.

Investments in lower middle market companies are subject to a number of significant risks including the following:

 

   

Lower middle market companies are likely to have greater exposure to economic downturns than larger businesses. Our portfolio companies may have fewer resources than larger businesses, and thus any economic downturns or recessions are more likely to have a material adverse effect on them. If one of our portfolio companies is adversely impacted by a recession, its ability to repay our loan or engage in a liquidity event, such as a sale, recapitalization or initial public offering would be diminished.

 

   

Lower middle market companies may have limited financial resources and may not be able to repay the loans we make to them. Our strategy includes providing financing to portfolio companies that typically do not have readily available access to financing. While we believe that this provides an attractive opportunity for us to generate profits, this may make it difficult for the portfolio companies to repay their loans to us upon maturity. A borrower’s ability to repay its loan may be adversely affected by numerous factors, including the failure to meet its business plan, a downturn in its industry, or negative economic conditions. Deterioration in a borrower’s financial condition and prospects usually will be accompanied by deterioration in the value of any collateral and a reduction in the likelihood of us realizing on any guaranties we may have obtained from the borrower’s management. As of September 30, 2017, two portfolio companies were either fully or partially on non-accrual status with an aggregate debt cost basis of approximately $27.9 million, or 7.5% of the cost basis of all debt investments in our portfolio. While we are working with the portfolio companies to improve their profitability and cash flows, there can be no assurance that our efforts will prove successful. Although we will sometimes seek to be the senior, secured lender to a borrower, in most of our loans we expect to be subordinated to a senior lender, and our interest in any collateral would, accordingly, likely be subordinate to another lender’s security interest.

 

   

Lower middle market companies typically have narrower product lines and smaller market shares than large businesses. Because our target portfolio companies are lower middle market businesses, they will tend to be more vulnerable to competitors’ actions and market conditions, as well as general economic downturns. In addition, our portfolio companies may face intense competition, including competition from companies with greater financial resources, more extensive development, manufacturing, marketing, and other capabilities and a larger number of qualified managerial, and technical personnel.

 

   

There is generally little or no publicly available information about these businesses. Because we seek to invest in privately owned businesses, there is generally little or no publicly available operating and financial information about our potential portfolio companies. As a result, we rely on our officers, the Adviser and its employees, Gladstone Securities and certain consultants to perform due diligence investigations of these portfolio companies, their operations, and their prospects. We may not learn all of the material information we need to know regarding these businesses through our investigations.

 

   

Lower middle market companies generally have less predictable operating results. We expect that our portfolio companies may have significant variations in their operating results, may from time to time be exposed to litigation, may be engaged in rapidly changing businesses with products subject to a substantial risk of obsolescence, may require substantial additional capital to support their operations, to finance expansion or to maintain their competitive position, may otherwise have a weak financial position, or may be adversely affected by changes in the business cycle. Our portfolio companies may not meet net income, cash

 

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flow, and other coverage tests typically imposed by their senior lenders. A borrower’s failure to satisfy financial or operating covenants imposed by senior lenders could lead to defaults and, potentially, foreclosure on its senior credit facility, which could additionally trigger cross-defaults in other agreements. If this were to occur, it is possible that the borrower’s ability to repay our loan would be jeopardized.

 

   

Lower middle market companies are more likely to be dependent on one or two persons. Typically, the success of a lower middle market business also depends on the management talents and efforts of one or two persons or a small group of persons. The death, disability, or resignation of one or more of these persons could have a material adverse impact on our borrower and, in turn, on us.

 

   

Lower middle market companies may have limited operating histories. While we intend to target stable companies with proven track records, we may make loans to new companies that meet our other investment criteria. Portfolio companies with limited operating histories will be exposed to all of the operating risks that new businesses face and may be particularly susceptible to, among other risks, market downturns, competitive pressures and the departure of key executive officers.

 

   

Debt securities of lower middle market companies typically are not rated by a credit rating agency. Typically a lower middle market private business cannot or will not expend the resources to have their debt securities rated by a credit rating agency. We expect that most, if not all, of the debt securities we acquire will be unrated. Investors should assume that these loans would be at rates below what is today considered “investment grade” quality. Investments rated below investment grade are often referred to as high yield securities or junk bonds and may be considered high risk as compared to investment-grade debt instruments.

 

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Because the loans we make and equity securities we receive when we make loans are not publicly traded, there is uncertainty regarding the value of our privately held securities that could adversely affect our determination of our net asset value (“NAV”).

Our portfolio investments are, and we expect will continue to be, in the form of securities that are not publicly traded. The fair value of securities and other investments that are not publicly traded may not be readily determinable. Our Board of Directors has ultimate responsibility for reviewing and approving, in good faith, the fair value of our investments, based on our investment valuation policy (the “Policy”) (which has been approved by our Board of Directors). Our Board of Directors reviews valuation recommendations that are provided by the professionals of the Adviser and Administrator, with oversight and direction from our chief valuation officer, an employee of the Administrator who reports directly to our Board of Directors, (collectively, the “Valuation Team”). In valuing our investment portfolio, several techniques are used, including, a total enterprise value approach, a yield analysis, market quotes, and independent third party assessments. Currently, Standard & Poor’s Securities Evaluation, Inc. provides estimates of fair value on our proprietary debt investments and we use another independent valuation firm to provide valuation inputs for our significant equity investments, including earnings multiple ranges, as well as other information. In addition to these techniques, other factors are considered when determining fair value of our investments, including but limited to: the nature and realizable value of the collateral, including external parties’ guaranties; any relevant offers or letters of intent to acquire the portfolio company; and the markets in which the portfolio company operates. If applicable, new and follow-on proprietary debt and equity investments made during the current three month reporting period ended September 30, 2017 are generally valued at original cost basis. For additional information on our valuation policies, procedures and processes, refer to Note 2— Summary of Significant Accounting Policies in our accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this prospectus.

Fair value measurements of our investments may involve subjective judgments and estimates and due to the inherent uncertainty of determining these fair values, the fair value of our investments may fluctuate from period to period. Additionally, changes in the market environment and other events that may occur over the life of the investment may cause the gains or losses ultimately realized on these investments to be different than the valuations currently assigned. Further, such investments are generally subject to legal and other restrictions on resale or otherwise are less liquid than publicly traded securities. If we were required to liquidate a portfolio investment in a forced or liquidation sale, we could realize significantly less than the value at which it is recorded.

Our NAV would be adversely affected if the fair value of our investments that are approved by our Board of Directors are higher than the values that we ultimately realize upon the disposal of such securities.

Our most recent NAV was calculated on September 30, 2017 and our NAV when calculated effective December 31, 2017 and thereafter may be higher or lower.

As of September 30, 2017, our NAV per share was $8.40, which was based on the fair value our investments that were reviewed and approved by the Valuation Committee and Board of Directors in connection with financial statements that were audited by our independent registered public accounting firm. NAV per share as of December 31, 2017 may be higher or lower than $8.40 based on potential changes in valuations, our issuance of shares of common stock under our at-the-market program subsequent to September 30, 2017, or dividends paid and earnings for the quarter then ended. Our Board of Directors determines the fair value of our portfolio investments on a quarterly basis and if our December 31, 2017 fair value is less than the September 30, 2017 fair value, we will record an unrealized loss on our investment portfolio. If the fair value is greater, we will record an unrealized gain on our investment portfolio. Upon publication of our next quarterly NAV per share determination (generally in our next Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q), the market price of our common stock may fluctuate materially.

The valuation process for certain of our portfolio holdings creates a conflict of interest.

A substantial portion of our portfolio investments are made in the form of securities that are not publicly traded. As a result, our Board of Directors determines the fair value of these securities in good faith pursuant to the Policy. In connection with that determination, the Valuation Team prepares portfolio company valuations based upon the most recent portfolio company financial statements available and projected financial results of each portfolio company. The participation of the Adviser’s investment professionals in our valuation process, and the pecuniary interest in the Adviser by Mr. Gladstone, may result in a conflict of interest as the management fees that we pay the Adviser are based on our gross assets less cash.

The lack of liquidity of our privately held investments may adversely affect our business.

We will generally make investments in private companies whose securities are not traded in any public market. Substantially all of the investments we presently hold and the investments we expect to acquire in the future are, and will be, subject to legal and other restrictions on resale and will otherwise be less liquid than publicly traded securities. The illiquidity of our investments may make it difficult for us to quickly obtain cash equal to the value at which we record our investments if the need arises. This could cause us to miss important investment opportunities. In addition, if we are required to liquidate all or a portion of our portfolio quickly, we may record substantial realized losses upon liquidation. We may also face other restrictions on our ability to liquidate an investment in a portfolio company to the extent that we, the Adviser, or our respective officers, employees or affiliates have material non-public information regarding such portfolio company.

Due to the uncertainty inherent in valuing these securities, the Valuation Team’s determinations of fair value may differ materially from the values that could be obtained if a ready market for these securities existed. Our NAV could be materially affected if the Valuation Team’s determinations regarding the fair value of our investments that are ultimately approved by our Board of Directors are materially different from the values that we ultimately realize upon our disposal of such securities.

 

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When we are a debt or minority equity investor in a portfolio company, which we expect will generally be the case, we may not be in a position to control the entity, and its management may make decisions that could decrease the value of our investment.

We anticipate that most of our investments will continue to be either debt or minority equity investments in our portfolio companies. Therefore, we are and will remain subject to the risk that a portfolio company may make business decisions with which we disagree, and the shareholders and management of such company may take risks or otherwise act in ways that do not serve our best interests. As a result, a portfolio company may make decisions that could decrease the value of our portfolio holdings.

In addition, we will generally not be in a position to control any portfolio company by investing in its debt securities. This is particularly true when we invest in syndicated loans, which are loans made by a larger group of investors whose investment objectives may not be completely aligned with ours. As of September 30, 2017, syndicated loans made up approximately 10.0% of our portfolio at cost, or $41.3 million. We therefore are subject to the risk that other lenders in these investments may make decisions that could decrease the value of our portfolio holdings.

We typically invest in transactions involving acquisitions, buyouts and recapitalizations of companies, which will subject us to the risks associated with change in control transactions.

Our strategy, in part, includes making debt and equity investments in companies in connection with acquisitions, buyouts and recapitalizations, which subjects us to the risks associated with change in control transactions. Change in control transactions often present a number of uncertainties. Companies undergoing change in control transactions often face challenges retaining key employees and maintaining relationships with customers and suppliers. While we hope to avoid many of these difficulties by participating in transactions where the management team is retained and by conducting thorough due diligence in advance of our decision to invest, if our portfolio companies experience one or more of these problems, we may not realize the value that we expect in connection with our investments, which would likely harm our operating results and financial condition.

Our portfolio companies may incur debt that ranks equally with, or senior to, our investments in such companies.

We invest primarily in debt securities issued by our portfolio companies. In some cases portfolio companies will be permitted to have other debt that ranks equally with, or senior to, the debt securities in which we invest. By their terms, such debt instruments may provide that the holders thereof are entitled to receive payment of interest and principal on or before the dates on which we are entitled to receive payments in respect of the debt securities in which we invest. Also, in the event of insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization, or bankruptcy of a portfolio company, holders of debt instruments ranking senior to our investment in that portfolio company would typically be entitled to receive payment in full before we receive any distribution in respect of our investment. After repaying such senior creditors, such portfolio company may not have any remaining assets to use for repaying its obligation to us. In the case of debt ranking equally with debt securities in which we invest, we would have to share on an equal basis any distributions with other creditors holding such debt in the event of an insolvency, liquidation, dissolution, reorganization, or bankruptcy of a portfolio company.

We may be unable to invest a significant portion of the net proceeds from an offering, from exiting an investment, prepayment of an investment, or other capital source on acceptable terms, which could harm our financial condition and operating results.

Delays in investing the net proceeds raised in an offering or from exiting an investment, prepayment of an investment or other capital source may cause our performance to be worse than that of other fully invested BDCs or other lenders or investors pursuing comparable investment strategies. We cannot assure you that we will be able to identify any investments that meet our investment objective or that any investment that we make will produce a positive return. We may be unable to invest the net proceeds from any offering, from exiting an investment, prepayment of an investment or other capital source on acceptable terms within the time period that we anticipate or at all, which could harm our financial condition and operating results.

Prepayments of our investments by our portfolio companies could adversely impact our results of operations and reduce our return on equity.

In addition to risks associated with delays in investing our capital, we are also subject to the risk that investments we make in our portfolio companies may be repaid prior to maturity. For the year ended September 30, 2017, we received prepayments of investments totaling $71.6 million. We will generally first use any proceeds from prepayments to repay any borrowings outstanding on our Credit Facility. In the event that funds remain after repayment of our outstanding borrowings, then we will generally reinvest these proceeds in government securities, pending their future investment in new debt and/or equity securities. These government securities will typically have substantially lower yields than the debt securities being prepaid and we could experience significant delays in reinvesting these amounts. As a result, our results of operations could be materially adversely affected if one or more of our portfolio companies elect to prepay amounts owed to us. Additionally, prepayments could negatively impact our return on equity, which could result in a decline in the market price of our common stock.

 

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Higher taxation of our portfolio companies may impact our quarterly and annual operating results.

Additional taxation at the federal, state or municipality level may have an adverse effect on our portfolio companies’ earnings and reduce their ability to repay our loans to them, thus affecting our quarterly and annual operating results.

Our portfolio is concentrated in a limited number of companies and industries, which subjects us to an increased risk of significant loss if any one of these companies does not repay us or if the industries experience downturns.

As of September 30, 2017, we had investments in 47 portfolio companies, of which there were five investments that comprised approximately $110.9 million, or 31.5% of our total investment portfolio, at fair value. A consequence of a concentration in a limited number of investments is that the aggregate returns we realize may be substantially adversely affected by the unfavorable performance of a small number of such investments or a substantial write-down of any one investment. Beyond our regulatory and income tax diversification requirements, we do not have fixed guidelines for industry concentration and our investments could potentially be concentrated in relatively few industries. In addition, while we do not intend to invest 25.0% or more of our total assets in a particular industry or group of industries at the time of investment, it is possible that as the values of our portfolio companies change, one industry or a group of industries may comprise in excess of 25.0% of the value of our total assets. As a result, a downturn in an industry in which we have invested a significant portion of our total assets could have a materially adverse effect on us. As of September 30, 2017, our largest industry concentrations of our total investments at fair value were in diversified/conglomerate service companies, representing 22.9%; healthcare, education and childcare companies, representing 13.1%; and diversified/conglomerate manufacturing companies, representing 11.6%. Therefore, we are susceptible to the economic circumstances in these industries, and a downturn in one or more of these industries could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.

Our investments are typically long term and will require several years to realize liquidation events.

Since we generally make five to seven year term loans and hold our loans and related warrants or other equity positions until the loans mature, you should not expect realization events, if any, to occur over the near term. In addition, we expect that any warrants or other equity positions that we receive when we make loans may require several years to appreciate in value and we cannot give any assurance that such appreciation will occur.

The disposition of our investments may result in contingent liabilities.

Currently, all of our investments involve private securities. In connection with the disposition of an investment in private securities, we may be required to make representations about the business and financial affairs of the underlying portfolio company typical of those made in connection with the sale of a business. We may also be required to indemnify the purchasers of such investment to the extent that any such representations turn out to be inaccurate or with respect to certain potential liabilities. These arrangements may result in contingent liabilities that ultimately yield funding obligations that must be satisfied through our return of certain distributions previously made to us.

There may be circumstances where our debt investments could be subordinated to claims of other creditors or we could be subject to lender liability claims.

Even though we have structured some of our investments as senior loans, if one of our portfolio companies were to go bankrupt, depending on the facts and circumstances, including the extent to which we actually provided managerial assistance to that portfolio company, a bankruptcy court might re-characterize our debt investments and subordinate all, or a portion, of our claims to that of other creditors. Holders of debt instruments ranking senior to our investments typically would be entitled to receive payment in full before we receive any distributions. After repaying such senior creditors, such portfolio company may not have any remaining assets to use to repay its obligation to us. We may also be subject to lender liability claims for actions taken by us with respect to a borrower’s business or in instances in which we exercised control over the borrower. It is possible that we could become subject to a lender’s liability claim, including as a result of actions taken in rendering significant managerial assistance.

Portfolio company litigation or other litigation or claims against us or our personnel could result in additional costs and the diversion of management time and resources.

In the course of investing in and often providing significant managerial assistance to certain of our portfolio companies, certain persons employed by the Adviser may serve as directors on the boards of such companies. To the extent that litigation arises out of our investments in these companies, even if without merit, we or such employees may be named as defendants in such litigation, which could result in additional costs, including defense costs, and the diversion of management time and resources. Additionally, other litigations or claims against us or our personnel could result in additional costs, including defense costs, and the diversion of management time and resources.

We may not realize gains from our equity investments and other yield enhancements.

When we make a subordinated loan, we may receive warrants to purchase stock issued by the borrower or other yield enhancements, such as success fees. Our goal is to ultimately dispose of these equity interests and realize gains upon our disposition of such interests. We expect that, over time, the gains we realize on these warrants and other yield enhancements will offset any losses we experience on loan defaults. However,

 

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any warrants we receive may not appreciate in value and, in fact, may decline in value and any other yield enhancements, such as success fees, may not be realized. Accordingly, we may not be able to realize gains from our equity interests or other yield enhancements and any gains we do recognize may not be sufficient to offset losses we experience on our loan portfolio.

Any unrealized depreciation we experience on our investment portfolio may be an indication of future realized losses, which could reduce our income available for distribution.

As a BDC we are required to carry our investments at market value or, if no market value is ascertainable, at fair value as determined in good faith by or under the direction of our Board of Directors. We will record decreases in the market values or fair values of our investments as unrealized depreciation. Since our inception, we have, at times, incurred a cumulative net unrealized depreciation of our portfolio. Any unrealized depreciation in our investment portfolio could result in realized losses in the future and ultimately in reductions of our income available for distribution to stockholders in future periods.

Risks Related to Our External Financing

In addition to regulatory limitations on our ability to raise capital, our Credit Facility contains various covenants which, if not complied with, could accelerate our repayment obligations under the facility, thereby materially and adversely affecting our liquidity, financial condition, results of operations and ability to pay distributions.

We will have a continuing need for capital to finance our investments. As of September 30, 2017, we had $93.0 million in borrowings, at cost, outstanding under our Credit Facility, which provides for maximum borrowings of $170.0 million, with a revolving period end date of January 19, 2019. Our Credit Facility permits us to fund additional loans and investments as long as we are within the conditions set forth in the credit agreement. Our Credit Facility contains covenants that require our wholly-owned subsidiary Business Loan to maintain its status as a separate legal entity, prohibit certain significant corporate transactions (such as mergers, consolidations, liquidations or dissolutions) and restrict material changes to our credit and collection policies without lenders’ consent. The Credit Facility also limits distributions to our stockholders on a fiscal year basis to the sum of our net investment income, net capital gains and amounts deemed to have been paid during the prior year in accordance with Section 855(a) of the Code. We are also subject to certain limitations on the type of loan investments we can make, including restrictions on geographic concentrations, sector concentrations, loan size, interest rate type, payment frequency and status, average life and lien property. Our Credit Facility further requires us to comply with other financial and operational covenants, which obligate us to, among other things, maintain certain financial ratios, including asset and interest coverage, and a minimum number of 25 obligors in the borrowing base. Additionally, we are subject to a performance guaranty that requires us to maintain (i) a minimum net worth (defined in our Credit Facility to include our mandatorily redeemable preferred stock) of $205.0 million plus 50.0% of all equity and subordinated debt raised after May 1, 2015 less 50% of any equity and subordinated debt retired or redeemed after May 1, 2015, which equates to $221.8 million as of September 30, 2017, (ii) asset coverage with respect to “senior securities representing indebtedness” of at least 200%, in accordance with Section 18 of the 1940 Act and (iii) our status as a BDC under the 1940 Act and as a RIC under the Code. As of September 30, 2017, and as defined in the performance guaranty of our Credit Facility, we were in compliance with all of our Credit Facility covenants; however, our continued compliance depends on many factors, some of which are beyond our control.

Given the continued uncertainty in the capital markets, the cumulative unrealized depreciation in our portfolio may increase in future periods and threaten our ability to comply with the minimum net worth covenant and other covenants under our Credit Facility. Our failure to satisfy these covenants could result in foreclosure by our lenders, which would accelerate our repayment obligations under the facility and thereby have a material adverse effect on our business, liquidity, financial condition, results of operations and ability to pay distributions to our stockholders.

Any inability to renew, extend or replace our Credit Facility on terms favorable to us, or at all, could adversely impact our liquidity and ability to fund new investments or maintain distributions to our stockholders.

The revolving period end date of our Credit Facility is January 19, 2019 (the “Revolving Period End Date”) and if our Credit Facility is not renewed or extended by the Revolving Period End Date, all principal and interest will be due and payable on or before May 1, 2020. Subject to certain terms and conditions, our Credit Facility may be expanded to a total of $250.0 million through the addition of other lenders to the facility. However, if additional lenders are unwilling to join the facility on its terms, we will be unable to expand the facility and thus will continue to have limited availability to finance new investments under our Credit Facility. There can be no guarantee that we will be able to renew, extend or replace our Credit Facility upon its Revolving Period End Date on terms that are favorable to us, if at all. Our ability to expand our Credit Facility, and to obtain replacement financing at or before the Revolving Period End Date, will be constrained by then-current economic conditions affecting the credit markets. In the event that we are not able to expand our Credit Facility, or to renew, extend or refinance our Credit Facility by the Revolving Period End Date, this could have a material adverse effect on our liquidity and ability to fund new investments, our ability to make distributions to our stockholders and our ability to qualify as a RIC under the Code.

If we are unable to secure replacement financing, we may be forced to sell certain assets on disadvantageous terms, which may result in realized losses, and such realized losses could materially exceed the amount of any unrealized depreciation on these assets as of our most recent balance sheet date, which would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. Such circumstances would also increase the likelihood that we would be required to redeem some or all of our outstanding mandatorily redeemable preferred stock, which could potentially require us to sell more assets. In addition to selling assets, or as an alternative, we may issue equity in order to repay amounts outstanding under our Credit Facility. Based on the recent trading prices of our stock, such an equity offering may have a substantial dilutive impact on our existing

 

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stockholders’ interest in our earnings, assets and voting interest in us. If we are not able to renew, extend or refinance our Credit Facility prior to its maturity, it could result in significantly higher interest rates and related charges and may impose significant restrictions on the use of borrowed funds to fund investments or maintain distributions to stockholders.

Our business plan is dependent upon external financing, which is constrained by the limitations of the 1940 Act.

The last equity offering we completed was on September 27, 2017, inclusive of an overallotment option, for a total of 2,070,000 shares of 6.0% preferred stock at a public offering price of $25.00 per share. In addition, subsequent to September 30, 2017 and through November 13, 2017, we sold an additional 471,498 shares under our at-the-market program. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to raise capital through issuing equity in the near future, especially with respect to common stock, as we are not requesting that our stockholders approve the Company’s ability to issue shares of common stock at a price below NAV at the Company’s 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held in February. Our business requires a substantial amount of cash to operate and grow. We may acquire such additional capital from the following sources:

 

   

Senior securities. We may issue “senior securities representing indebtedness” (including borrowings under our Credit Facility) and “senior securities that are stock,” such as our Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock, up to the maximum amount permitted by the 1940 Act. The 1940 Act currently permits us, as a BDC, to issue such senior securities in amounts such that our asset coverage, as defined in Section 18(h) of the 1940 Act, is at least 200% on such senior security immediately after each issuance of such senior security. As a result of incurring indebtedness (in whatever form), we will be exposed to the risks associated with leverage. Although borrowing money for investments increases the potential for gain, it also increases the risk of a loss. A decrease in the value of our investments will have a greater impact on the value of our common stock to the extent that we have borrowed money to make investments. There is a possibility that the costs of borrowing could exceed the income we receive on the investments we make with such borrowed funds. In addition, our ability to pay distributions, issue senior securities or repurchase shares of our common stock would be restricted if the asset coverage on each of our senior securities is not at least 200%. If the aggregate value of our assets declines, we might be unable to satisfy that 200% requirement. To satisfy the 200% asset coverage requirement in the event that we are seeking to pay a distribution, we might either have to (i) liquidate a portion of our loan portfolio to repay a portion of our indebtedness or (ii) issue common stock. This may occur at a time when a sale of a portfolio asset may be disadvantageous, or when we have limited access to capital markets on agreeable terms. In addition, any amounts that we use to service our indebtedness or for offering expenses will not be available for distributions to stockholders. Furthermore, if we have to issue common stock at below NAV per common share, any non-participating stockholders will be subject to dilution, as described below. Pursuant to Section 61(a)(2) of the 1940 Act, we are permitted, under specified conditions, to issue multiple classes of “senior securities representing indebtedness.” However, pursuant to Section 18(c) of the 1940 Act, we are permitted to issue only one class of “senior securities that are stock.”

 

   

Common and Convertible Preferred Stock. Because we are constrained in our ability to issue debt or senior securities for the reasons given above, we are dependent on the issuance of equity as a financing source. If we raise additional funds by issuing more common stock, the percentage ownership of our stockholders at the time of the issuance would decrease and our existing common stockholder may experience dilution. In addition, under the 1940 Act, we will generally not be able to issue additional shares of our common stock at a price below NAV per common share to purchasers, other than to our existing stockholders through a rights offering, without first obtaining the approval of our stockholders and our independent directors. If we were to sell shares of our common stock below our then current NAV per common share, such sales would result in an immediate dilution to the NAV per common share. This dilution would occur as a result of the sale of shares at a price below the then current NAV per share of our common stock and a proportionately greater decrease in a stockholder’s interest in our earnings and assets and voting percentage than the increase in our assets resulting from such issuance. For example, if we issue and sell an additional 10.0% of our common stock at a 5.0% discount from NAV, a stockholder who does not participate in that offering for its proportionate interest will suffer NAV dilution of up to 0.5% or $5 per $1,000 of NAV. This imposes constraints on our ability to raise capital when our common stock is trading below NAV per common share, as it generally has in previous years. As noted above, the 1940 Act prohibits the issuance of multiple classes of “senior securities that are stock.” As a result, we would be prohibited from issuing convertible preferred stock to the extent that such a security was deemed to be a separate class of stock from our outstanding Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock.

 

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We financed certain of our investments with borrowed money and capital from the issuance of senior securities, which will magnify the potential for gain or loss on amounts invested and may increase the risk of investing in us.

The following table illustrates the effect of leverage on returns from an investment in our common stock assuming various annual returns on our portfolio, net of expenses. The calculations in the table below are hypothetical, and actual returns may be higher or lower than those appearing in the table below.

 

     Assumed Return on Our Portfolio
(Net of Expenses)
 
     (10.0 )%      (5.0 )%      0.0     5.0     10.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Corresponding return to common stockholder (A)

     (18.2 )%      (9.9 )%      (1.6 )%      6.8     15.1

 

 

(A)

The hypothetical return to common stockholders is calculated by multiplying our total assets as of September 30, 2017 by the assumed rates of return and subtracting all interest accrued on our debt for the year ended September 30, 2017, adjusted for the dividends on our Series 2021 Term Preferred Stock and 2024 Term Preferred Stock; and then dividing the resulting difference by our total assets attributable to common stock. Based on $365.9 million in total assets, $93.0 million drawn on our Credit Facility (at cost), $51.8 million in aggregate liquidation preference of our Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock, and $219.7 million in net assets, each as of September 30, 2017.

Based on the outstanding balance on our Credit Facility of $93.0 million at cost, as of September 30, 2017, the effective annual interest rate of 5.3% as of that date, and aggregate liquidation preference of our Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock of $51.8 million, our investment portfolio at fair value would have had to produce an annual return of at least 1.7% to cover annual interest payments on the outstanding debt and dividends on our Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock.

A change in interest rates may adversely affect our profitability and our hedging strategy may expose us to additional risks.

We anticipate using a combination of equity and long-term and short-term borrowings to finance our investment activities. As a result, a portion of our income will depend upon the difference between the rate at which we borrow funds and the rate at which we loan these funds. Higher interest rates on our borrowings will decrease the overall return on our portfolio.

As of September 30, 2017, based on the total principal balance of debt outstanding, our portfolio consisted of approximately 91.6% of loans at variable rates with floors and approximately 8.4% at fixed rates.

We do not currently hold any interest rate cap agreements. While hedging activities may insulate us against adverse fluctuations in interest rates, they may also limit our ability to participate in the benefits of lower interest rates with respect to the hedged portfolio. Adverse developments resulting from changes in interest rates or any future hedging transactions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our ability to receive payments pursuant to an interest rate cap agreement is linked to the ability of the counter-party to that agreement to make the required payments. To the extent that the counter-party to the agreement is unable to pay pursuant to the terms of the agreement, we may lose the hedging protection of the interest rate cap agreement. For additional information on market interest rate fluctuations, see “ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations—Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk .”

Risks Related to Our Regulation and Structure

We will be subject to corporate-level tax if we are unable to satisfy Code requirements for RIC qualification.

To maintain our qualification as a RIC, we must meet income source, asset diversification, and annual distribution requirements. The annual distribution requirement is satisfied if we distribute at least 90.0% of our investment company taxable income to our stockholders on an annual basis. Because we use leverage, we are subject to certain asset coverage ratio requirements under the 1940 Act and could, under certain circumstances, be restricted from making distributions necessary to qualify as a RIC. Warrants we receive with respect to debt investments will create “original issue discount,” which we must recognize as ordinary income over the term of the debt investment or PIK interest which is accrued generally over the term of the debt investment but not paid in cash, both of which will increase the amounts we are required to distribute to maintain RIC status. Because such original issue discounts (“OID”) and PIK interest will not produce distributable cash for us at the same time as we are required to make distributions, we will need to use cash from other sources to satisfy such distribution requirements. The asset diversification requirements must be met at the end of each calendar quarter. If we fail to meet these tests, we may need to quickly dispose of certain investments to prevent the loss of RIC status. Since most of our investments will be illiquid, such dispositions, if even possible, may not be made at prices advantageous to us and, in fact, may result in substantial losses. If we fail to qualify as a RIC for any reason and become fully subject to corporate income tax, the resulting corporate taxes could substantially reduce our net assets, the amount of income available for distribution, and the actual amount distributed. Such a failure would have a material adverse effect on us and our shares. For additional information regarding asset coverage ratio and RIC requirements, see “Business—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations—Regulated Investment Company Status .”

From time to time, some of our debt investments may include success fees that would generate payments to us if the business is ultimately sold. Because the satisfaction of these success fees, and the ultimate payment of these fees, is uncertain, we generally only recognize them as income when the payment is received. Success fee amounts are characterized as ordinary income for tax purposes and, as a result, we are required to distribute such amounts to our stockholders in order to maintain RIC status.

 

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If we do not invest a sufficient portion of our assets in qualifying assets, we could fail to qualify as a BDC or be precluded from investing according to our current business strategy.

As a BDC, we may not acquire any assets other than “qualifying assets” unless, at the time of and after giving effect to such acquisition, at least 70% of our total assets are qualifying assets.

We believe that most of the investments that we may acquire in the future will constitute qualifying assets. However, we may be precluded from investing in what we believe to be attractive investments if such investments are not qualifying assets for purposes of the 1940 Act. If we do not invest a sufficient portion of our assets in qualifying assets, we could violate the 1940 Act provisions applicable to BDCs. As a result of such violation, specific rules under the 1940 Act could prevent us, for example, from making follow-on investments in existing portfolio companies (which could result in the dilution of our position) or could require us to dispose of investments at inappropriate times in order to come into compliance with the 1940 Act. If we need to dispose of such investments quickly, it could be difficult to dispose of such investments on favorable terms. We may not be able to find a buyer for such investments and, even if we do find a buyer, we may have to sell the investments at a substantial loss. Any such outcomes would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

If we do not maintain our status as a BDC, we would be subject to regulation as a registered closed-end investment company under the 1940 Act. As a registered closed-end investment company, we would be subject to substantially more regulatory restrictions under the 1940 Act, which would significantly decrease our operating flexibility.

Changes in laws or regulations governing our operations, or changes in the interpretation thereof, and any failure by us to comply with laws or regulations governing our operations may adversely affect our business.

We and our portfolio companies are subject to regulation by laws at the local, state and federal levels. These laws and regulations, as well as their interpretation, may be changed from time to time. Accordingly, any change in these laws or regulations, or their interpretation, or any failure by us or our portfolio companies to comply with these laws or regulations may adversely affect our business. For additional information regarding the regulations to which we are subject, see “ Business—Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations ” and “ Business— Regulation as a BDC .”

We are subject to restrictions that may discourage a change of control. Certain provisions contained in our charter and Maryland law may prohibit or restrict a change of control and adversely impact the price of our shares.

Our Board of Directors is divided into three classes, with the term of the directors in each class expiring every third year. At each annual meeting of stockholders, the successors to the class of directors whose term expires at such meeting will be elected to hold office for a term expiring at the annual meeting of stockholders held in the third year following the year of their election. After election, a director may only be removed by our stockholders for cause. Election of directors for staggered terms with limited rights to remove directors makes it more difficult for a hostile bidder to acquire control of us. The existence of this provision may negatively impact the price of our securities and may discourage third-party bids to acquire our securities. This provision may reduce any premiums paid to stockholders in a change in control transaction.

Certain provisions of Maryland law applicable to us prohibit business combinations with:

 

   

any person who beneficially owns, directly or indirectly, 10.0% or more of the voting power of our outstanding voting stock (an “interested stockholder”);

 

   

an affiliate of ours who at any time within the two-year period prior to the date in question was an interested stockholder; or

 

   

an affiliate of an interested stockholder.

These prohibitions last for five years after the most recent date on which the interested stockholder became an interested stockholder. Thereafter, any business combination with the interested stockholder must be recommended by our Board of Directors and approved by the affirmative vote of at least 80.0% of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of our outstanding shares of voting stock and two-thirds of the votes entitled to be cast by holders of our voting stock other than shares held by the interested stockholder. These requirements could have the effect of inhibiting a change in control even if a change in control were in our stockholders’ interest. These provisions of Maryland law do not apply, however, to business combinations that are approved or exempted by our Board of Directors prior to the time that someone becomes an interested stockholder.

Our charter permits our Board of Directors to issue up to 50.0 million shares of capital stock. Our Board of Directors may classify or reclassify any unissued common stock or preferred stock into other classes or series of stock and establish the preferences,

 

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conversion or other rights, voting powers, restrictions, limitations as to distributions, qualifications and terms or conditions of redemption of any such stock. Thus, our Board of Directors could authorize the issuance of preferred stock with terms and conditions that could have a priority as to distributions and amounts payable upon liquidation over the rights of the holders of our common stock, which it did in connection with our issuance of approximately 2.1 million shares of Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock. Preferred stock, including our Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock, could also have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of us, including an extraordinary transaction (such as a merger, tender offer or sale of all or substantially all of our assets) that might provide a premium price for holders of our common stock.

Risks Related to Our External Management

We are dependent upon our key management personnel and the key management personnel of the Adviser, particularly David Gladstone, Terry Lee Brubaker and Robert L. Marcotte and on the continued operations of the Adviser, for our future success.

We have no employees. Our chief executive officer, chief operating officer, chief financial officer and treasurer, and the employees of the Adviser, do not spend all of their time managing our activities and our investment portfolio. We are particularly dependent upon David Gladstone, Terry Lee Brubaker and Robert L. Marcotte for their experience, skills and networks. Our executive officers and the employees of the Adviser allocate some, and in some cases a material portion, of their time to businesses and activities that are not related to our business. We have no separate facilities and are completely reliant on the Adviser, which has significant discretion as to the implementation and execution of our business strategies and risk management practices. We are subject to the risk of discontinuation of the Adviser’s operations or termination of the Advisory Agreement and the risk that, upon such event, no suitable replacement will be found. We believe that our success depends to a significant extent upon the Adviser and that discontinuation of its operations or the loss of its key management personnel could have a material adverse effect on our ability to achieve our investment objectives.

Our success depends on the Adviser’s ability to attract and retain qualified personnel in a competitive environment.

The Adviser experiences competition in attracting and retaining qualified personnel, particularly investment professionals and senior executives, and we may be unable to maintain or grow our business if we cannot attract and retain such personnel. The Adviser’s ability to attract and retain personnel with the requisite credentials, experience and skills depends on several factors including, but not limited to, its ability to offer competitive wages, benefits and professional growth opportunities. The Adviser competes with investment funds (such as private equity funds and mezzanine funds) and traditional financial services companies for qualified personnel, many of which have greater resources than us. Searches for qualified personnel may divert management’s time from the operation of our business. Strain on the existing personnel resources of the Adviser, in the event that it is unable to attract experienced investment professionals and senior executives, could have a material adverse effect on our business.

In addition, we depend upon the Adviser to maintain its relationships with private equity sponsors, placement agents, investment banks, management groups and other financial institutions, and we expect to rely to a significant extent upon these relationships to provide us with potential investment opportunities. If the Adviser or members of our investment team fail to maintain such relationships, or to develop new relationships with other sources of investment opportunities, we will not be able to grow our investment portfolio. In addition, individuals with whom the Adviser has relationships are not obligated to provide us with investment opportunities, and we can offer no assurance that these relationships will generate investment opportunities for us in the future.

The Adviser can resign on 60 days’ notice, and we may not be able to find a suitable replacement within that time, resulting in a disruption in our operations that could adversely affect our financial condition, business and results of operations.

The Adviser has the right to resign under the Advisory Agreement at any time upon not less than 60 days’ written notice, whether we have found a replacement or not. If the Adviser resigns, we may not be able to find a new investment adviser or hire internal management with similar expertise and ability to provide the same or equivalent services on acceptable terms within 60 days, or at all. If we are unable to do so quickly, our operations are likely to experience a disruption, our financial condition, business and results of operations as well as our ability to pay distributions are likely to be adversely affected and the market price of our shares may decline. In addition, the coordination of our internal management and investment activities is likely to suffer if we are unable to identify and reach an agreement with a single institution or group of executives having the expertise possessed by the Adviser and its affiliates. Even if we are able to retain comparable management, whether internal or external, the integration of such management and their lack of familiarity with our investment objective may result in additional costs and time delays that may adversely affect our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

Our incentive fee may induce the Adviser to make certain investments, including speculative investments.

The management compensation structure that has been implemented under the Advisory Agreement may cause the Adviser to invest in high-risk investments or take other risks. In addition to its management fee, the Adviser is entitled under the Advisory Agreement to receive incentive compensation based in part upon our achievement of specified levels of income. In evaluating investments and other management strategies, the opportunity to earn incentive compensation based on net income may lead the Adviser to place undue emphasis on the maximization of net income at the expense of other criteria, such as preservation of capital, maintaining sufficient liquidity, or management of credit risk or market risk, in order to achieve higher incentive compensation. Investments with higher yield potential are generally riskier or more speculative. This could result in increased risk to the value of our investment portfolio.

 

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We may be obligated to pay the Adviser incentive compensation even if we incur a loss.

The Advisory Agreement entitles the Adviser to incentive compensation for each fiscal quarter in an amount equal to a percentage of the excess of our investment income for that quarter (before deducting incentive compensation, net operating losses and certain other items) above a threshold return for that quarter. When calculating our incentive compensation, our pre-incentive fee net investment income excludes realized and unrealized capital losses that we may incur in the fiscal quarter, even if such capital losses result in a net loss on our statement of operations for that quarter. Thus, we may be required to pay the Adviser incentive compensation for a fiscal quarter even if there is a decline in the value of our portfolio or we incur a net loss for that quarter. For additional information on incentive compensation under the Advisory Agreement with the Adviser, see “ Business—Transactions with Related Parties.

We may be required to pay the Adviser incentive compensation on income accrued, but not yet received in cash.

That part of the incentive fee payable by us that relates to our net investment income is computed and paid on income that may include interest that has been accrued but not yet received in cash, such as debt instruments with PIK interest or OID. If a portfolio company defaults on a loan, it is possible that such accrued interest previously used in the calculation of the incentive fee will become uncollectible. Consequently, we may make incentive fee payments on income accruals that we may not collect in the future and with respect to which we do not have a clawback right against the Adviser. Our OID investments totaled $20.7 million as of September 30, 2017, at cost, which are all syndicated loan investments. For the year ended September 30, 2017, we recognized $0.3 million of OID income and the unamortized balance of OID investments as of September 30, 2017 totaled $0.4 million. As of September 30, 2017, we had six investments which had a PIK interest component and we recorded PIK interest income of $5.0 million during the year ended September 30, 2017. We collected $2.0 million in PIK interest in cash for the year ended September 30, 2017.

The Adviser’s failure to identify and invest in securities that meet our investment criteria or perform its responsibilities under the Advisory Agreement would likely adversely affect our ability for future growth.

Our ability to achieve our investment objectives will depend on our ability to grow, which in turn will depend on the Adviser’s ability to identify and invest in securities that meet our investment criteria. Accomplishing this result on a cost-effective basis will be largely a function of the Adviser’s structuring of the investment process, its ability to provide competent and efficient services to us, and our access to financing on acceptable terms. The senior management team of the Adviser has substantial responsibilities under the Advisory Agreement. In order to grow, the Adviser will need to hire, train, supervise, and manage new employees successfully. Any failure to manage our future growth effectively would likely have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations.

There are significant potential conflicts of interest, including with the Adviser, which could impact our investment returns.

Our executive officers and directors, and the officers and directors of the Adviser, serve or may serve as officers, directors, or principals of entities that operate in the same or a related line of business as we do or of investment funds managed by our affiliates. Accordingly, they may have obligations to investors in those entities, the fulfillment of which might not be in the best interests of us or our stockholders. For example, Mr. Gladstone, our chairman and chief executive officer, is the chairman of the board and chief executive officer of each of the Gladstone Companies. In addition, Mr. Brubaker, our vice chairman and chief operating officer, is the vice chairman and chief operating officer of each of the Gladstone Companies. Mr. Marcotte is an executive managing director of the Adviser. Moreover, the Adviser may establish or sponsor other investment vehicles which from time to time may have potentially overlapping investment objectives with ours and accordingly may invest in, whether principally or secondarily, asset classes we target. While the Adviser generally has broad authority to make investments on behalf of the investment vehicles that it advises, the Adviser has adopted investment allocation procedures to address these potential conflicts and intends to direct investment opportunities to the Affiliated Public Fund with the investment strategy that most closely fits the investment opportunity. Nevertheless, the management of the Adviser may face conflicts in the allocation of investment opportunities to other entities managed by the Adviser. As a result, it is possible that we may not be given the opportunity to participate in certain investments made by other funds managed by the Adviser. Our Board of Directors approved a revision of our investment objectives and strategies that became effective on January 1, 2013, which may enhance the potential for conflicts in the allocation of investment opportunities to us and other entities managed by the Adviser.

More specifically, in certain circumstances we may make investments in a portfolio company in which one of our affiliates has or will have an investment, subject to satisfaction of any regulatory restrictions and, where required, to the prior approval of our Board of Directors. As of September 30, 2017, our Board of Directors has approved the following types of co-investment transactions:

 

   

Our affiliate, Gladstone Commercial, may, under certain circumstances, lease property to portfolio companies that we do not control. We may pursue such transactions only if (i) the portfolio company is not controlled by us or any of our affiliates, (ii) the portfolio company satisfies the tenant underwriting criteria of Gladstone Commercial, and (iii) the transaction is approved by a majority of our independent directors and a majority of the independent directors of Gladstone Commercial. We expect that any such negotiations between Gladstone Commercial and our portfolio companies would result in lease terms consistent with the terms that the portfolio companies would be likely to receive were they not portfolio companies of ours.

 

   

We may invest simultaneously with our affiliate Gladstone Investment in senior loans in the broadly syndicated market whereby neither we nor any affiliate has the ability to dictate the terms of the loans.

 

   

Pursuant to the Co-Investment Order, under certain circumstances, we may co-invest with Gladstone Investment and any future BDC or closed-end management investment company that is advised by the Adviser (or sub-advised by the Adviser if it controls the fund), or any combination of the foregoing, subject to the conditions included therein. In connection with investments made pursuant to the Co-Investment Order a required majority of our Board of Directors must approve the transaction. A “required” majority is a vote of both a majority of our directors who have no financial interest in the transaction and a majority of the directors who are not interested persons of the Company.

 

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Certain of our officers, who are also officers of the Adviser, may from time to time serve as directors of certain of our portfolio companies. If an officer serves in such capacity with one of our portfolio companies, such officer will owe fiduciary duties to stockholders of the portfolio company, which duties may from time to time conflict with the interests of our stockholders.

In the course of our investing activities, we will pay base management and incentive fees to the Adviser and will reimburse the Administrator for certain expenses it incurs. As a result, investors in our common stock will invest on a “gross” basis and receive distributions on a “net” basis after expenses, resulting in, among other things, a lower rate of return than one might achieve through our investors themselves making direct investments. As a result of this arrangement, there may be times when the management team of the Adviser has interests that differ from those of our stockholders, giving rise to a conflict. In addition, as a BDC, we make available significant managerial assistance to our portfolio companies and provide other services to such portfolio companies. While, neither we nor the Adviser currently receives fees in connection with managerial assistance, the Adviser and Gladstone Securities have, at various times, provided other services to certain of our portfolio companies and received fees for these other services.

The Adviser is not obligated to provide a credit of the base management fee or incentive fee, which could negatively impact our earnings and our ability to maintain our current level of distributions to our stockholders.

The Advisory Agreement provides for a base management fee based on our gross assets and an incentive fee which consists of two parts: an income-based incentive fee and a capital gains-based incentive fee. Since our 2007 fiscal year, our Board of Directors has accepted on a quarterly basis voluntary, unconditional and irrevocable credits to reduce the annual base management fee, which was previously 2.0%, but following an amendment to the Advisory Agreement, effective July 1, 2015 is now 1.75%, on syndicated loan participations to 0.5% to the extent that proceeds resulting from borrowings were used to purchase such syndicated loan participations. Further, our Board of Directors has accepted on a quarterly basis non-contractual, unconditional and irrevocable credits from the Adviser to reduce the income-based incentive fee to the extent net investment income did not cover 100.0% of distributions to common stockholders. Any waived fees may not be recouped by the Adviser in the future. However, the Adviser is not required to issue these or other credits of fees under the Advisory Agreement, and to the extent our investment portfolio grows in the future, we expect these management and incentive fees will increase. If the Adviser does not issue these credits in future quarters, it could negatively impact our earnings and may compromise our ability to maintain our current level of distributions to our stockholders, which could have a material adverse impact on our stock price.

Our business model is dependent upon developing and sustaining strong referral relationships with investment bankers, business brokers and other intermediaries and any change in our referral relationships may impact our business plan.

We are dependent upon informal relationships with investment bankers, business brokers and traditional lending institutions to provide us with deal flow. If we fail to maintain our relationship with such funds or institutions, or if we fail to establish strong referral relationships with other funds, we will not be able to grow our portfolio of investments and fully execute our business plan.

Our base management fee may induce the Adviser to incur leverage.

The fact that our base management fee is payable based upon our gross assets, which would include any investments made with proceeds of borrowings, may encourage the Adviser to use leverage to make additional investments. Under certain circumstances, the use of increased leverage may increase the likelihood of default, which would disfavor holders of our securities. Given the subjective nature of the investment decisions made by the Adviser on our behalf, we will not be able to monitor this potential conflict of interest.

Risks Related to an Investment in Our Securities

We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly and annual operating results.

We may experience fluctuations in our quarterly and annual operating results due to a number of factors, including, among others, variations in our investment income, the interest rates payable on the debt securities we acquire, the default rates on such securities, variations in and the timing of the recognition of realized and unrealized gains or losses, the level of our expenses, the degree to which we encounter competition in our markets, and general economic conditions, including the impacts of inflation. The majority of our portfolio companies are in industries that are directly impacted by inflation, such as manufacturing and consumer goods and services. Our portfolio companies may not be able to pass on to customers increases in their costs of production which could greatly affect their operating results, impacting their ability to repay our loans. In addition, any projected future decreases in our portfolio companies’ operating results due to inflation could adversely impact the fair value of those investments. Any decreases in the fair value of our investments could result in future realized and unrealized losses and therefore reduce our net assets resulting from operations. As a result of these factors, results for any period should not be relied upon as being indicative of performance in future periods.

 

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There is a risk that you may not receive distributions or that distributions may not grow over time.

We intend to distribute at least 90.0% of our investment company taxable income to our stockholders on a quarterly basis by paying monthly distributions. We cannot assure you that we will achieve investment results that will allow us to make a specified level of cash distributions or year-to-year increases in cash distributions. Furthermore, we expect to retain some or all net realized long-term capital gains by first offsetting them with realized capital losses, and secondly through a deemed distribution to supplement our equity capital and support the growth of our portfolio, although our Board of Directors may determine in certain cases to distribute these gains to our common stockholders. In addition, our Credit Facility restricts the amount of distributions we are permitted to make. We cannot assure you that we will achieve investment results or maintain a tax status that will allow or require any specified level of cash distributions. Further, the terms of our outstanding preferred stock may restrict our ability to pay distributions on our common stock or require us to redeem shares of preferred stock if we do not meet the required asset coverage ratio for “senior securities that are stock” and fail to cure such required asset coverage ratio within the applicable cure period. See “ Risks Related to Our Regulation and Structure—We will be subject to corporate-level tax if we are unable to satisfy Code requirements for RIC qualification .”

Investing in our securities may involve an above average degree of risk.

The investments we make in accordance with our investment objective may result in a higher amount of risk than alternative investment options and a higher risk of volatility or loss of principal. Our investments in portfolio companies may be highly speculative, and therefore, an investment in our shares may not be suitable for someone with lower risk tolerance.

Distributions to our stockholders have included and may in the future include a return of capital.

Quarterly, our Board of Directors declares monthly distributions based on then current estimates of taxable income for each fiscal year, which may differ, and in the past have differed, from actual results. Because our distributions are based on estimates of taxable income that may differ from actual results, future distributions payable to our stockholders may also include a return of capital. Moreover, to the extent that we distribute amounts that exceed our current and accumulated earnings and profits, these distributions constitute a return of capital. A return of capital represents a return of a stockholder’s original investment in shares of our stock and should not be confused with a distribution from earnings and profits. Although return of capital distributions may not be taxable, such distributions may increase an investor’s tax liability for capital gains upon the sale of our shares by reducing the investor’s tax basis for such shares. Such returns of capital reduce our asset base and also adversely impact our ability to raise debt capital as a result of the leverage restrictions under the 1940 Act, which could have material adverse impact on our ability to make new investments.

The issuance of subscription rights to our existing stockholders may dilute the ownership and voting powers of existing stockholders in our common stock, dilute the NAV of their shares and have a material adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock.

There are significant capital raising constraints applicable to us under the 1940 Act when our common stock is trading below its NAV per share. In the event that we issue subscription rights to our existing stockholders to subscribe for and purchase additional shares of our common stock, there is a significant possibility that the rights offering will dilute the ownership interest and voting power of stockholders who do not fully exercise their subscription rights. Stockholders who do not fully exercise their subscription rights should expect that they will, upon completion of the rights offering, own a smaller proportional interest in us than would otherwise be the case if they fully exercised their subscription rights. In addition, because the subscription price of the rights offering is likely to be less than our most recently determined NAV per common share, our common stockholders are likely to experience an immediate dilution of the per share NAV of their shares as a result of the offer. As a result of these factors, any future rights offerings of our common stock, or our announcement of our intention to conduct a rights offering, could have a material adverse impact on the trading price of our common stock.

Shares of closed-end investment companies frequently trade at a discount from NAV.

Shares of closed-end investment companies frequently trade at a discount from NAV per common share. Since our inception, our common stock has at times traded above NAV, and at times below NAV per share. Subsequent to September 30, 2017, our common stock has traded only at premiums (of up to 17.3%) to our NAV per share, which was $8.40 as of September 30, 2017. This characteristic of shares of closed-end investment companies is separate and distinct from the risk that our NAV per share will decline. As with any stock, the price of our shares will fluctuate with market conditions and other factors. If shares are sold, the price received may be more or less than the original investment. Whether investors will realize gains or losses upon the sale of our shares will not depend directly upon our NAV, but will depend upon the market price of the shares at the time of sale. Since the market price of our shares will be affected by such factors as the relative demand for and supply of the shares in the market, general market and economic conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict whether the shares will trade at, below or above our NAV.

Under the 1940 Act, we are generally not able to issue additional shares of our common stock at a price below NAV per share to purchasers other than our existing stockholders through a rights offering without first obtaining the approval of our common stockholders and our independent directors. Additionally, when our common stock is trading below its NAV per share, our dividend yield may exceed the weighted average returns that we would expect to realize on new investments that would be made with the proceeds from the sale of such stock, making it unlikely that we would determine to issue additional shares in such circumstances. Thus, for as long as our common stock may trade below NAV, we will be subject to significant constraints on our ability to raise capital through the issuance of common stock. Additionally, an extended period of time in which we are unable to raise capital may restrict our ability to grow and adversely impact our ability to increase or maintain our distributions.

 

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Common stockholders may incur dilution if we sell shares of our common stock in one or more offerings at prices below the then current NAV per share of our common stock.

At our annual meeting of stockholders on February 11, 2016, our stockholders approved a proposal designed to allow us to sell shares of our common stock below the then current NAV per share of our common stock in one or more offerings for a period of one year from the date of such approval, subject to certain conditions (including, but not limited to, that the number of common shares issued and sold pursuant to such authority does not exceed 25.0% of our then outstanding common stock immediately prior to each such sale). Absent such stockholder approval, we would not be able to access the capital markets in an offering at below the then current NAV per share due to restrictions applicable to BDCs under the 1940 Act.

We exercised this right with our Board of Directors’ approval when we completed a public offering of 2,173,444 million shares of our common stock in October 2016, inclusive of an overallotment option, for gross proceeds totaling $17.3 million, at a public offering price of $7.98 per share, which was below our September 30, 2016 NAV of $8.62 per share.

If we were to sell shares of our common stock below NAV per share, such sales would result in an immediate dilution to the NAV per share. This dilution would occur as a result of the sale of shares at a price below the then current NAV per share of our common stock and a proportionately greater decrease in a stockholder’s interest in our earnings and assets and voting interest in us than the increase in our assets resulting from such issuance. The greater the difference between the sale price and the NAV per share at the time of the offering, the more significant the dilutive impact would be. Because the number of shares of common stock that could be so issued and the timing of any issuance is not currently known, the actual dilutive effect, if any, cannot be currently predicted. However, if, for example, we sold an additional 10.0% of our common stock at a 5.0% discount from NAV, a stockholder who did not participate in that offering for its proportionate interest would suffer NAV dilution of up to 0.5% or $5 per $1,000 of NAV.

We did not request that our stockholders approve the Company’s ability to issue shares of common stock at a price below NAV at our annual meeting of stockholders held on February 9, 2017 and are not requesting that our stockholders approve the Company’s ability to issue shares of common stock at a price below NAV at the Company’s 2018 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held in February. Should we decide to issue shares of common stock at a price below NAV in the future, we will seek the requisite approval of our stockholders.

We may not be permitted to declare a dividend or make any distribution to stockholders or repurchase shares until such time as we satisfy the asset coverage tests under the provisions of the 1940 Act that apply to BDCs. As a BDC, we have the ability to issue senior securities only in amounts such that our asset coverage, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 200% after each issuance of senior securities. If the value of our assets declines, we may be unable to satisfy this test. If that happens, we may be required to sell a portion of our investments and, depending on the nature of our leverage, repay a portion of our debt at a time when such sales and/or repayments may be disadvantageous.

Regulations governing our operation as a BDC and RIC will affect our ability to raise, and the way in which we raise, additional capital or borrow for investment purposes, which may have a negative effect on our growth. As a result of the annual distribution requirement to qualify as a RIC, we may need to periodically access the capital markets to raise cash to fund new investments. We may issue “senior securities representing indebtedness,” including borrowing money from banks or other financial institutions or “senior securities that are stock,” such as our mandatorily redeemable preferred stock, only in amounts such that our asset coverage on each senior security, as defined in the 1940 Act, equals at least 200% after each such incurrence or issuance. Further, we may not be permitted to declare a dividend or make any distribution to our outstanding stockholders or repurchase shares until such time as we satisfy these tests. Our ability to issue different types of securities is also limited. Compliance with these requirements may unfavorably limit our investment opportunities and reduce our ability in comparison to other companies to profit from favorable spreads between the rates at which we can borrow and the rates at which we can lend. As a BDC, therefore, we intend to continuously issue equity at a rate more frequent than our privately owned competitors, which may lead to greater stockholder dilution. We have incurred leverage to generate capital to make additional investments. If the value of our assets declines, we may be unable to satisfy the asset coverage test under the 1940 Act, which could prohibit us from paying distributions and could prevent us from qualifying as a RIC. If we cannot satisfy the asset coverage test, we may be required to sell a portion of our investments and, depending on the nature of our debt financing, repay a portion of our indebtedness at a time when such sales and repayments may be disadvantageous.

If we fail to pay dividends on our Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock for two years, the holders of our Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock will be entitled to elect a majority of our directors.

The terms of our Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock provide for annual dividends in the amount of $1.50 per outstanding share of Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock. In accordance with the terms of our Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock, if dividends thereon are unpaid in an amount equal to at least two years of dividends, the holders of Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock will be entitled to elect a majority of our Board of Directors.

Holders of our preferred stock and future holders of any securities ranking senior to our common stock have dividend, distribution and liquidation rights that are senior to the rights of the holders of our common stock.

In September 2017, we completed a public offering of the Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock, at a public offering price of $25.00 per share. In such offering, we issued approximately 2.1 million shares of Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock. The shares of Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock have dividend, distribution and liquidation rights that are senior to the rights of the holders of our common stock. Further, in

 

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the future, we may attempt to increase our capital resources by making additional offerings of preferred equity securities or issuing debt securities. Upon liquidation, holders of our preferred stock, holders of our debt securities, if any, and lenders with respect to other borrowings, including the Credit Facility, would receive a distribution of our available assets in full prior to the holders of our common stock. Because our decision to issue securities in any future offering will depend on market conditions and other factors beyond our control, we cannot predict or estimate the amount, timing or nature of our future offerings. Thus, our common stockholders bear the risk of our future offerings reducing the per share trading price of our common stock and diluting their interest in us.

Other Risks

We could face losses and potential liability if intrusion, viruses or similar disruptions to our technology jeopardize our confidential information, whether through breach of our network security or otherwise.

Maintaining our network security is of critical importance because our systems store highly confidential financial models and portfolio company information. Although we have implemented, and will continue to implement, security measures, our technology platform is and will continue to be vulnerable to intrusion, computer viruses or similar disruptive problems caused by transmission from unauthorized users. The misappropriation of proprietary information could expose us to a risk of loss or litigation.

Cybersecurity risks and cyber incidents may adversely affect our business by causing a disruption to our operations, or the operations of businesses in which we invest, a compromise or corruption of our confidential information and/or damage to our business relationships, all of which could negatively impact our business, financial condition and operating results.

A cyber incident is considered to be any adverse event that threatens the confidentiality, integrity or availability of our information resources. These incidents may be an intentional attack or an unintentional event and could involve gaining unauthorized access to our information systems for purposes of misappropriating assets, stealing confidential information, corrupting data or causing operational disruption. The result of these incidents may include disrupted operations, misstated or unreliable financial data, liability for stolen assets or information, increased cybersecurity protection and insurance costs, litigation and damage to our business relationships. As our reliance on technology has increased, so have the risks posed to our information systems, both internal and those provided to us by third-party service providers. We have implemented processes, procedures and internal controls to help mitigate cybersecurity risks and cyber intrusions, but these measures, as well as our increased awareness of the nature and extent of a risk of a cyber incident, do not guarantee that a cyber incident will not occur and/or that our financial results, operations or confidential information will not be negatively impacted by such an incident.

We are dependent on information systems and systems failures could significantly disrupt our business, which may, in turn, negatively affect the market price of our common stock and our ability to pay dividends.

Our business is dependent on our and third parties’ communications and information systems. Any failure or interruption of those systems, including as a result of the termination of an agreement with any third-party service providers, could cause delays or other problems in our activities. Our financial, accounting, data processing, backup or other operating systems and facilities may fail to operate properly or become disabled or damaged as a result of a number of factors including events that are wholly or partially beyond our control and adversely affect our business. There could be:

 

   

sudden electrical or telecommunications outages;

 

   

natural disasters such as earthquakes, tornadoes and hurricanes;

 

   

disease pandemics;

 

   

events arising from local or larger scale political or social matters, including terrorist acts; and

 

   

cyber-attacks.

These events, in turn, could have a material adverse effect on our operating results and negatively affect the market price of our common stock and our ability to pay dividends to our stockholders.

 

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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

All statements contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement, other than historical facts, may constitute “forward-looking statements.” These statements may relate to, among other things, future events or our future performance, financial condition future operating results, our business prospects and the prospects of our portfolio companies, actual and potential conflicts of interest with our Adviser, and its affiliates, the use of borrowed money to finance our investments, the adequacy of our financing sources and working capital, and our ability to co-invest, among other factors. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “estimate,” “may,” “might,” “believe,” “will,” “provided,” “anticipate,” “future,” “could,” “growth,” “plan,” “intend,” “expect,” “should,” “would,” “if,” “seek,” “possible,” “potential,” “likely” or the negative of such terms or comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, levels of activity, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Such factors include, among others: (1) the recurrence of adverse events in the economy and the capital markets; (2) risks associated with negotiation and consummation of pending and future transactions; (3) the loss of one or more of our executive officers, in particular David Gladstone, Terry Lee Brubaker and Robert L. Marcotte; (4) changes in our investment objectives and strategy; (5) availability, terms (including the possibility of interest rate volatility) and deployment of capital; (6) changes in our industry, interest rates, exchange rates or the general economy; (7) the degree and nature of our competition; (8) our ability to maintain our qualification as a RIC and as a BDC; and (9) those factors described in the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement. We caution readers not to place undue reliance on any such forward-looking statements, which speak only as of the date made. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, after the date of this prospectus. The forward-looking statements contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement are excluded from the safe harbor protection provided by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and Section 27A of the Securities Act.

USE OF PROCEEDS

Unless otherwise specified in any prospectus supplement accompanying this prospectus, we expect to use the net proceeds from the sale of the Securities first to pay down existing short-term debt, then to make investments in lower middle market businesses in accordance with our investment objectives, with any remaining proceeds to be used for other general corporate purposes. For the quarter ended September 30, 2017, indebtedness under our Credit Facility had a weighted average interest rate of approximately 5.2%, excluding effects of amortization on our deferred financing costs, and the revolving period ends on January 19, 2019. We anticipate that substantially all of the net proceeds of any offering of Securities will be utilized in the manner described above within three months of the completion of such offering. Pending such utilization, we intend to invest the net proceeds of any offering of Securities primarily in cash, cash equivalents, U.S. government securities, and other high-quality debt investments that mature in one year or less from the date of investment, consistent with the requirements for continued qualification as a RIC for federal income tax purposes.

PRICE RANGE OF COMMON STOCK AND DISTRIBUTIONS

We currently intend to distribute in the form of cash dividends, for each taxable year, a minimum of 90% of our annual ordinary income and short- term capital gains, if any, to our stockholders in the form of monthly dividends. We intend to retain long-term capital gains and treat them as deemed distributions for tax purposes. We report the estimated tax characterization of each dividend when declared while the actual tax characterization of dividends for each calendar year are reported to each stockholder on IRS Form 1099-DIV. There is no assurance that we will achieve investment results or maintain a tax status that will permit any specified level of cash distributions or year-to-year increases in cash distributions. At the option of a holder of record of common stock, all cash distributions paid with respect to our common stock can be reinvested automatically under our dividend reinvestment plan in additional whole and fractional shares of our common stock. A stockholder whose shares are held in the name of a broker or other nominee should contact the broker or nominee regarding participation in a dividend reinvestment plan. See “ Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Regulation and Structure—We will be subject to corporate-level tax if we are unable to satisfy Code requirements for RIC qualification;” “Dividend Reinvestment Plan;” and “Material U.S. Federal Income Tax Considerations.

Our common stock is quoted on the Nasdaq under the symbol “GLAD.” Our common stock has historically traded at prices both above and below its NAV. There can be no assurance that any premium to NAV will be attained or maintained. As of December 18, 2017 there were 36 stockholders of record, meaning individuals or entities that we carry in our records as the registered holder (although not necessarily the beneficial owner) of our common stock.

The following table sets forth the range of high and low intraday sale prices of our common stock as reported on the Nasdaq and the distributions declared by us for the last two completed fiscal years and the current fiscal year through December 18, 2017.

 

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COMMON SHARE PRICE DATA

 

            Sales Price                      
     NAV (1)      High      Low      Declared
Common
Distributions
     Premium (Discount) of
High to

NAV (2)
    Premium (Discount) of
Low to

NAV (2)
 

Fiscal Year ended September 30, 2016

                

First Quarter

     8.38        9.09        6.39        0.21        8.5       (23.8

Second Quarter

     7.92        7.59        4.71        0.21        (4.2     (40.5

Third Quarter

     7.95        7.67        6.80        0.21        (3.5     (14.5

Fourth Quarter

     8.62        8.75        7.24        0.21        1.5       (16.0

Fiscal Year ended September 30, 2017

                

First Quarter

     8.36        9.62        7.33        0.21        15.1       (12.3

Second Quarter

     8.33        9.92        8.67        0.21        19.1       4.1  

Third Quarter

     8.38        10.12        9.15        0.21        20.8       9.2  

Fourth Quarter

     8.40        9.95        8.98        0.21        18.5       6.9  

Fiscal Year ending September 30, 2018

                

First Quarter (through December 18, 2017)

     *        9.92        9.16        0.21        *       *  

 

(1) NAV per share is determined as of the last day in the relevant quarter and therefore may not reflect the NAV per share on the date of the high and low intraday sale prices. The NAV per shares shown are based on outstanding shares at the end of each period.
(2) The (discounts) premiums to NAV per share set forth in these columns represent the high or low, as applicable, intraday sale price per share for the relevant quarter minus the NAV per share as of the end of such quarter, and therefore may not reflect the (discount) premium to NAV per share on the date of the high and low intraday sale prices.
* Not yet available, as the NAV per share as of the end of this quarter has not yet been determined.

Share Repurchases

In January 2016, our Board of Directors authorized a share repurchase program for up to an aggregate of $7.5 million of the Company’s common stock. The program expired on January 31, 2017. During the year ended September 30, 2016, we repurchased 87,200 shares of our common stock at an average share price of $6.53, resulting in aggregate gross purchases of $0.6 million. We did not repurchase any shares during the year ended September 30, 2017. See “ Share Repurchases.

The following are our outstanding classes of securities as of December 18, 2017.

 

Title of Class

   Amount
Authorized
     Amount Held
by us for

Our
Account
     Amount
Outstanding
 

Common Stock

     44,560,000        —          26,632,182  

6.00% Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock

     5,440,000        —          2,070,000  

 

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RATIOS OF EARNINGS TO FIXED CHARGES

For the years ended September 30, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013, the ratios of three income metrics to fixed charges of the Company, computed as set forth below, were as follows:

 

     Year Ended September 30,  
     2017      2016      2015      2014      2013  

Net investment income plus fixed charges to fixed charges

     3.6x        3.4x        3.0x        3.5x        3.6x  

Net investment income plus net realized losses plus fixed charges to fixed charges (A)

     3.0x        4.3x        (0.8x      1.9x        2.8x  

Net increase (decrease) in net assets resulting from operations plus fixed charges to fixed charges

     3.1x        2.4x        1.9x        2.6x        5.5x  

For purposes of computing the ratios, fixed charges include interest expense on borrowings, dividend expense on mandatorily redeemable preferred stock and amortization of deferred financing fees.

 

(A) Due to realized losses on certain investments during the year ended September 30, 2015, the ratio of net investment income plus net realized losses plus fixed charges to fixed charges was less than 1:1. We would have needed to generate additional net investment income of approximately $17.0 million during the year ended September 30, 2015 to achieve a coverage ratio of 1:1.

 

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CONSOLIDATED SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA

The following consolidated selected financial data for the fiscal years ended September 30, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014 and 2013 are derived from our audited accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements . The other data included in the second table below is unaudited. The data should be read in conjunction with our accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and notes thereto and “ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations included elsewhere in this prospectus.

GLADSTONE CAPITAL CORPORATION

CONSOLIDATED SELECTED FINANCIAL AND OTHER DATA

(DOLLAR AMOUNTS IN THOUSANDS, EXCEPT PER SHARE)

 

     Year Ended September 30,  
     2017     2016     2015     2014     2013  

Statement of Operations Data:

          

Total Investment Income

   $ 39,233     $ 39,112     $ 38,058     $ 36,585     $ 36,154  

Total Expenses, Net of Credits from Adviser

     17,800       19,625       20,358       18,217       17,768  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Investment Income

     21,433       19,487       17,700       18,368       18,386  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Realized and Unrealized (Loss) Gain

     (4,253 )       (8,120     (9,216     (7,135     13,833  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Increase in Net Assets Resulting from Operations

   $ 17,180     $ 11,367     $ 8,484     $ 11,233     $ 32,219  
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Per Share Data:

          

Net Investment Income per Common Share—Basic and Diluted  (A)

   $ 0.84     $ 0.84     $ 0.84     $ 0.87     $ 0.88  

Net Increase in Net Assets Resulting from Operations per Common Share - Basic and Diluted  (A)

     0.67       0.49       0.40       0.53       1.53  

Distributions Declared and Paid Per Common Share  (B)

     0.84       0.84       0.84       0.84       0.84  

From net investment income

     0.84       0.70       0.84       0.12       0.78  

From realized gains

              0.14                             

From return of capital

              —         —         0.72       0.06  

Statement of Assets and Liabilities Data:

          

Total Assets

   $ 365,860     $ 337,178     $ 382,482     $ 301,429     $ 295,091  

Net Assets

     219,650       201,207       191,444       199,660       205,992  

Net Asset Value Per Common Share

     8.40       8.62       9.06       9.51       9.81  

Common Shares Outstanding

     26,160,684       23,344,422       21,131,622       21,000,160       21,000,160  

Weighted Common Shares Outstanding—Basic and Diluted

     25,495,117       23,200,642       21,066,844       21,000,160       21,000,160  

Senior Securities Data:

          

Total borrowings, at cost  (C)

   $ 93,000     $ 71,300     $ 127,300     $ 36,700     $ 46,900  

Mandatorily redeemable preferred stock  (C)(D)

     51,750       61,000       61,000       61,000       38,497  

 

(A)  

Per share data is based on the weighted average common stock outstanding for both basic and diluted.

(B)  

The tax character of distributions is determined on an annual basis. For further information on the estimated character of our distributions to common stockholders, please refer to Note 9— Distributions to Common Stockholders included elsewhere in this prospectus.

(C)  

See “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” for more information regarding our level of indebtedness.

(D)  

Represents the total liquidation preference of our mandatorily redeemable preferred stock.

 

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     Year Ended September 30,  
     2017     2016     2015     2014     2013  

Other Unaudited Data:

          

Number of Portfolio Companies at Year End

     47       45       48       45       47  

Average Size of Portfolio Company Investment at Cost

   $ 8,754     $ 8,484     $ 8,547     $ 7,762     $ 7,069  

Principal Amount of New Investments

     99,241       79,401       102,299       81,731       80,418  

Proceeds from Loan Repayments, Investments Sold and Exits  (A)

     83,444       121,144       40,273       72,560       117,048  

Weighted Average Yield on Investments, excluding loans on non-accrual status  (B)

     11.57 %       11.08     10.93     11.47     11.63

Weighted Average Yield on Investments, including loans on non-accrual status  (C)

     10.61       10.27       9.84       9.99       9.74  

Total Return  (D)

     27.90       11.68       2.40       9.62       9.90  

 

(A)

Includes non-cash reductions in cost basis.

(B)  

Weighted average yield on investments, excluding loans on non-accrual status, equals interest income on investments divided by the weighted average interest-bearing principal balance throughout the fiscal year.

(C)  

Weighted average yield on investments, including loans on non-accrual status, equals interest income on investments divided by the weighted average total principal balance throughout the fiscal year.

(D)

Total return equals the change in the ending market value of our common stock from the beginning of the fiscal year, taking into account dividends reinvested in accordance with the terms of the dividend reinvestment plan. Total return does not take into account distributions that may be characterized as a return of capital. For further information on the estimated character of our distributions to common stockholders, refer to Note 9— Distributions to Common Stockholders elsewhere in this prospectus.

SELECTED QUARTERLY DATA (UNAUDITED)

The following tables set forth certain quarterly financial information for each of the eight quarters in the two years ended September 30, 2017. The information was derived from our unaudited consolidated financial statements. Results for any quarter are not necessarily indicative of results for the past fiscal year or for any future quarter.

 

     Quarter Ended  
     December 31,
2016
     March 31,
2017
     June 30,
2017
     September 30,
2017
 

Total investment income

   $ 9,974      $ 8,793      $ 9,632      $ 10,834  

Net investment income

     5,207        5,359        5,379        5,488  

Net Increase (decrease) in net assets resulting from operations

     916        4,656        6,163        5,445  

Net Increase (decrease) in Net Assets Resulting From Operations per Weighted Average Common Share (Basic and Diluted)

   $ 0.04      $ 0.18      $ 0.24      $ 0.21  
     Quarter Ended  
     December 31,
2015
     March 31,
2016
     June 30,
2016
     September 30,
2016
 

Total investment income

   $ 10,060      $ 9,456      $ 9,844      $ 9,750  

Net investment income

     4,759        4,917        4,907        4,905  

Net Increase (decrease) in net assets resulting from operations

     (8,704      (6,139      5,516        20,697  

Net Increase (decrease) in Net Assets Resulting From Operations per Weighted Average Common Share (Basic and Diluted)

   $ (0.38    $ (0.26    $ 0.24      $ 0.89  

 

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF

FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

The following analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements and the notes thereto contained elsewhere in this prospectus. Historical financial condition and results of operations and percentage relationships among any amounts in the financial statements are not necessarily indicative of financial condition, results of operations or percentage relationships for any future periods. Except per share amounts, dollar amounts in the tables included herein are in thousands unless otherwise indicated.

OVERVIEW

General

We were incorporated under the Maryland General Corporation Law on May 30, 2001. We operate as an externally managed, closed-end, non-diversified management investment company, and have elected to be treated as a BDC under the 1940 Act. In addition, for federal income tax purposes we have elected to be treated as a RIC under Subchapter M of the Code. As a BDC and a RIC, we are subject to certain constraints, including limitations imposed by the 1940 Act and the Code.

We were established for the purpose of investing in debt and equity securities of established private businesses operating in the U.S. Our investment objectives are to: (1) achieve and grow current income by investing in debt securities of established businesses that we believe will provide stable earnings and cash flow to pay expenses, make principal and interest payments on our outstanding indebtedness and make distributions to stockholders that grow over time; and (2) provide our stockholders with long-term capital appreciation in the value of our assets by investing in equity securities of established businesses that we believe can grow over time to permit us to sell our equity investments for capital gains. To achieve our investment objectives, our investment strategy is to invest in several categories of debt and equity securities, with each investment generally ranging from $8 million to $30 million, although investment size may vary, depending upon our total assets or available capital at the time of investment. We expect that our investment portfolio over time will consist of approximately 90.0% debt investments and 10.0% equity investments, at cost. As of September 30, 2017, our investment portfolio was made up of approximately 90.1% debt investments and 9.9% equity investments, at cost.

We focus on investing in lower middle market companies in the U.S. that meet certain criteria, including, but not limited to, the following: the sustainability of the business’ free cash flow and its ability to grow it over time, adequate assets for loan collateral, experienced management teams with a significant ownership interest in the borrower, reasonable capitalization of the borrower, including an ample equity contribution or cushion based on prevailing enterprise valuation multiples and, to a lesser extent, the potential to realize appreciation and gain liquidity in our equity position, if any. We lend to borrowers that need funds for growth capital or to finance acquisitions or recapitalize or refinance their existing debt facilities. We seek to avoid investing in high-risk, early-stage enterprises. Our targeted portfolio companies are generally considered too small for the larger capital marketplace. We invest by ourselves or jointly with other funds and/or management of the portfolio company, depending on the opportunity and have opportunistically made several co-investments with our affiliate Gladstone Investment, a BDC also managed by our Advisor, pursuant to an exemptive order granted by the SEC. We believe this ability to co-invest will continue to enhance our ability to further our investment objectives and strategies. If we are participating in an investment with one or more co-investors, our investment is likely to be smaller than if we were investing alone.

Going into fiscal year 2018, we intend to continue to make new conservative investments in businesses with steady cash flows. We are focused on building our pipeline and making investments that meet our objectives and strategies and that provide appropriate returns, in light of the accompanying risks.

Business

Portfolio and Investment Activity

In general, our investments in debt securities have a term of no more than seven years, accrue interest at variable rates (generally based on the one-month LIBOR) and, to a lesser extent, at fixed rates. We seek debt instruments that pay interest monthly or, at a minimum, quarterly, have a success fee or deferred interest provision and are primarily interest only with all principal and any accrued but unpaid interest due at maturity. Generally, success fees accrue at a set rate and are contractually due upon a change of control of a portfolio company, typically from an exit or sale. Some debt securities have deferred interest whereby some portion of the interest payment is added to the principal balance so that the interest is paid, together with the principal, at maturity. This form of deferred interest is often called PIK interest.

Typically, our equity investments consist of common stock, preferred stock, limited liability company interests, or warrants to purchase the foregoing. Often, these equity investments occur in connection with our original investment, recapitalizing a business, or refinancing existing debt.

 

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During the year ended September 30, 2017, we invested $99.2 million in eleven new portfolio companies and extended $17.6 million of investments to existing portfolio companies. In addition, during the year ended September 30, 2017, we exited nine portfolio companies through sales and early payoffs. We received a total of $83.4 million in combined net proceeds and principal repayments from the aforementioned portfolio company exits as well as existing portfolio companies during the year ended September 30, 2017. This activity resulted in a net increase in our overall portfolio by two portfolio companies to 47 and a net increase of 7.8% in our portfolio at cost since September 30, 2016. We intend to continue to make new conservative investments in businesses with steady cash flows. We are focused on building our pipeline and making investments that meet our objectives and strategies and that provide appropriate returns, in light of the accompanying risks. From our initial public offering in August 2001 and through September 30, 2017, we have made 470 different loans to, or investments in, 217 companies for a total of approximately $1.7 billion, before giving effect to principal repayments on investments and divestitures.

During the year ended September 30, 2017, the following significant transactions occurred:

 

   

In October 2016, RP Crown Parent, LLC paid off at par for net proceeds of $2.0 million.

 

   

In October 2016, our $3.9 million secured first lien debt investment in Vertellus Specialties, Inc. was restructured. As a result of the restructure, we received a new $1.1 million secured second lien debt investment in Vertellus Holdings LLC and common equity with a cost basis of $3.0 million.

 

   

In November 2016, we completed the sale of substantially all the assets of RBC Acquisition Corp. (“RBC”) for net proceeds of $36.3 million, which resulted in a realized loss of $2.3 million. In connection with the sale, we received success fee income of $1.1 million and net receivables of $1.5 million, which are recorded within Other assets, net.

 

   

In November 2016, we invested $5.2 million in Sea Link International IRB, Inc. through secured second lien debt and equity.

 

   

In December 2016, we sold our investment in Behrens Manufacturing, LLC (“Behrens”), which resulted in success fee income of $0.4 million and a realized gain of $2.5 million. In connection with the sale, we received net cash proceeds of $8.2 million, including the repayment of our debt investment of $4.3 million at par.

 

   

In December 2016, we invested $7.0 million in Vacation Rental Pros Property Management, LLC through secured second lien debt.

 

   

In December 2016, Autoparts Holdings Limited paid off at par for proceeds of $0.7 million.

 

   

In December 2016, we invested $5.0 million in LDiscovery, LLC through secured second lien debt.

 

   

In February 2017, we invested $10.0 million in Belnick, Inc. through secured second lien debt.

 

   

In February 2017, we invested $29.0 million in NetFortris Corp. through secured first lien debt.

 

   

In February 2017, Vitera Healthcare Solutions, LLC paid off at par for net proceeds of $4.5 million.

 

   

In March 2017, LCR Contractors, LLC paid off at par for net cash proceeds of $8.6 million. In connection with the payoff, we received a prepayment fee of $0.2 million.

 

   

In April 2017, we invested $22.0 million in HB Capital Resources, Ltd. through secured second lien debt.

 

   

In May 2017, we invested an additional $4.1 million in an existing portfolio company, Lignetics, Inc., through secured second lien debt and equity, to support an acquisition.

 

   

In May 2017, we invested $4.0 million in Keystone Acquisition Corp. through secured second lien debt.

 

   

In June 2017, we invested $3.0 million in Medical Solutions Holdings, Inc. through secured second lien debt.

 

   

In July 2017, our loan to SourceHOV, LLC was paid off for net proceeds of $4.8 million, resulting in a realized loss of $0.2 million.

 

   

In August 2017, we invested $12.5 million in EL Academies, Inc. through secured first lien debt and equity.

 

   

In August 2017, Drumcree, LLC paid off at par for net cash proceeds of $6.3 million.

 

   

In August 2017, The Active Network, Inc. paid off at par for net proceeds of $0.5 million.

 

   

In August 2017, we invested $1.0 million in Neustar, Inc. through secured second lien debt.

 

   

In September 2017, our investment in Targus Cayman HoldCo, Ltd. was restructured. As part of the transaction, our secured first lien debt investment with a cost basis of approximately $2.6 million was converted to shares of common equity with a cost basis of approximately $2.6 million. There were no changes to our existing common stock investment with a cost basis of approximately $2.3 million.

 

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In September 2017, we invested $0.5 million in Frontier Financial Group, Inc. through equity.

Refer to Note 15— Subsequent Events in the accompanying Consolidated Financial Statements included elsewhere in this prospectus for portfolio activity occurring subsequent to September 30, 2017.

Capital Raising

We have been able to meet our capital needs through extensions of and increases to the Credit Facility and by accessing the capital markets in the form of public equity offerings of common and preferred stock. We have successfully extended the Credit Facility’s revolving period multiple times, most recently to January 2019, and currently have a total commitment amount of $170.0 million. Additionally, we issued 2.1 million shares of our 6.00% Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Series 2024 Term Preferred Stock”) at a public offering price of $25.00 per share, for gross proceeds of $51.8 million in September 2017, inclusive of the overallotment, approximately 2.2 million shares of our common stock for gross proceeds of $17.3 million in October 2016, inclusive of the November 2016 overallotment, and 2.3 million shares of common stock for gross proceeds of $19.7 million in October 2015, inclusive of the November 2015 overallotment. Additionally, during the twelve months ended September 30, 2017, we sold 642,818 shares of our common stock under our at-the-market program with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co., at a weighted-average price of $9.88 per share and raised $6.4 million of gross proceeds. Refer to “ Liquidity and Capital Resources — Equity — Common Stock ” and “ Liquidity and Capital Resources — Equity — Term Preferred Stock ” for further discussion of our common stock and mandatorily redeemable preferred stock and “ Liquidity and Capital Resources — Revolving Line of Credit ” for further discussion of the Credit Facility.

Although we were able to access the capital markets historically and in recent years, we believe uncertain market conditions could affect the trading price of our capital stock and thus may inhibit our ability to finance new investments through the issuance of equity. When our stock trades below NAV per common share, as it has often done in previous years, our ability to issue equity is constrained by provisions of the 1940 Act, which generally prohibits the issuance and sale of our common stock below NAV per common share without first obtaining approval from our stockholders and our independent directors, other than through sales to our then-existing stockholders pursuant to a rights offering. We did not request that our stockholders approve the Company’s ability to issue shares of common stock at a price below NAV at our annual meeting of stockholders held on February 9, 2017. Should we decide to issue shares of common stock at a price below NAV in the future, we will seek the requisite approval of our stockholders at such time.

On December 18, 2017, the closing market price of our common stock was $9.54, a 13.6% premium to our September 30, 2017 NAV per share of $8.40.

Regulatory Compliance

Our ability to seek external debt financing, to the extent that it is available under current market conditions, is further subject to the asset coverage limitations of the 1940 Act, which require us to have an asset coverage (as defined in Sections 18 and 61 of the 1940 Act) of at least 200% on our “senior securities representing indebtedness” and our “senior securities that are stock.” As of September 30, 2017, our asset coverage on our “senior securities representing indebtedness” was 388.2% and our asset coverage on our “senior securities that are stock” was 249.6%.

Recent Developments

At-the-Market Program

Subsequent to September 30, 2017 and through November 13, 2017, we sold an additional 471,498 shares of our common stock under our at-the-market program with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co, at a weighted-average price of $9.69 per share and raised $4.6 million of gross proceeds. Net proceeds, after deducting commissions and offering costs borne by us, were approximately $4.5 million.

 

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Distributions

On October 10, 2017, our Board of Directors declared the following monthly cash distributions to common and preferred stockholders:

 

Record Date

   Payment Date    Distribution
per Common
Share
     Distribution per
Series 2024
Term Preferred
Share
 

October 20, 2017

   October 31, 2017    $ 0.07      $ 0.141667 (A)  

November 20, 2017

   November 30, 2017      0.07        0.125  

December 19, 2017

   December 29, 2017      0.07        0.125  
     

 

 

    

 

 

 
   Total for the Quarter    $ 0.21      $ 0.391667  
     

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(A) The dividend paid on October 31, 2017 included the pro-rated period from and including the issuance date of September 27, 2017 to and including September 30, 2017, and the full month of October 2017.

Portfolio and Investment Activity

In October 2017, we sold our investment in Flight Fit N Fun LLC, which had a cost basis and fair value of $8.5 million and $9.2 million, respectively, as of September 30, 2017. In connection with the sale, we received net cash proceeds of approximately $9.4 million, including the repayment of our debt investment of $7.8 million at par.

In October 2017, PSC Industrial Holdings, LLC paid off at par for net proceeds of $3.5 million.

In October 2017, we invested $11.0 million in AVST Parent Holdings, LLC through secured first lien debt.

In November 2017, DataPipe, Inc. paid off at par for net proceeds of $2.0 million.

In November 2017, we invested $5.0 million in DigiCert Holdings, Inc. through secured second lien debt.

In November 2017, we invested $4.0 million in Red Ventures, LLC through secured second lien debt.

In November 2017, we invested $1.0 million in ABG Intermediate Holdings 2, LLC through secured second lien debt.

In November 2017, we invested $7.5 million in Arc Drilling Holdings, LLC through secured first lien debt and equity.

In November 2017, we invested $7.5 million in Gray Matter Systems, LLC through secured second lien debt.

 

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RESULTS OF OPERATIONS

Comparison of the Year Ended September 30, 2017 to the Year Ended September 30, 2016

 

     For the Year Ended September 30,  
     2017      2016      $ Change      % Change  

INVESTMENT INCOME

           

Interest income

   $ 37,073      $ 35,219      $ 1,854        5.3

Other income

     2,160        3,893        (1,733      (44.5
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total investment income

     39,233        39,112        121        0.3  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

EXPENSES

           

Base management fee

     5,781        5,684        97        1.7  

Loan servicing fee

     4,146        3,890        256        6.6  

Incentive fee

     4,779        4,514        265        5.9  

Administration fee

     1,102        1,182        (80      (6.8

Interest expense on borrowings

     3,073        2,899        174        6.0  

Dividend expense on mandatorily redeemable preferred stock

     4,152        4,118        34        0.8  

Amortization of deferred financing fees

     1,094        1,075        19        1.8  

Other expenses

     1,945        2,459        (514      (20.9
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Expenses, before credits from Adviser

     26,072        25,821        251        1.0  

Credit to base management fee – loan servicing fee

     (4,146      (3,890      (256      6.6  

Credit to fees from Adviser - other

     (4,126 )        (2,306      (1,820      78.9  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total expenses, net of credits

     17,800        19,625        (1,825      (9.3
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

NET INVESTMENT INCOME

     21,433        19,487        1,946        10.0  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

NET REALIZED AND UNREALIZED (LOSS) GAIN

           

Net realized (loss) gain on investments

     (3,475      7,216        (10,691      (148.2

Net realized loss on other

     (1,288      (64      (1,224      (1,912.5

Net unrealized appreciation (depreciation) of investments

     625        (15,334      15,959        104.1  

Net unrealized (depreciation) appreciation of other

     (115 )        62        (177      (285.5
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net loss from investments and other

     (4,253 )        (8,120      3,867        47.6  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

NET INCREASE IN NET ASSETS RESULTING FROM OPERATIONS

   $ 17,180      $ 11,367      $ 5,813        51.1
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

PER BASIC AND DILUTED COMMON SHARE

           

Net investment income

   $ 0.84      $ 0.84      $ —         
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net increase in net assets resulting from operations

   $ 0.67      $ 0.49      $ 0.18        36.7
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Investment Income

Interest income increased by 5.3% for the year ended September 30, 2017, as compared to the prior year. This increase was due primarily to an increase in the weighted average yield on our interest-bearing portfolio. The weighted average yield on our interest-bearing investments is based on the current stated interest rate on interest-bearing investments which increased to 11.6% for the year ended September 30, 2017 compared to 11.1% for the year ended September 30, 2016, inclusive of any allowances on interest receivables made during those periods. The weighted average principal balance of our interest-bearing investment portfolio during the year ended September 30, 2017, was $320.1 million, compared to $317.0 million for the prior year, an increase of $3.1 million, or 1.0%.

As of September 30, 2017, two portfolio companies, Sunshine Media Holdings (“Sunshine”) and Alloy Die Casting Co. (“ADC”), were either fully or partially on non-accrual status, with an aggregate debt cost basis of approximately $27.9 million, or 7.5% of the cost basis of all debt investments in our portfolio. As of September 30, 2016, two portfolio companies, Sunshine and Vertellus Holdings, LLC, were either fully or partially on non-accrual status, with an aggregate debt cost basis of approximately $26.5 million, or 7.7% of the cost basis of all debt investments in our portfolio.

Other income decreased by 44.5% during the year ended September 30, 2017, as compared to the prior year. This decrease was primarily due to a $1.9 million decrease in success fees recognized year over year. For the year ended September 30, 2017, other income consisted primarily of $1.5 million in success fees recognized, $0.3 million in dividend income, and $0.3 million in prepayment fees received. For the year ended September 30, 2016, other income consisted primarily of $3.4 million in success fees recognized, $0.3 million in dividend income, and $0.2 million in prepayment fees.

 

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The following tables list the investment income for our five largest portfolio company investments at fair value during the respective years:

 

     As of September 30, 2017     Year Ended September 30, 2017  

Portfolio Company

   Fair Value      % of Portfolio     Investment
Income
     % of Total
Investment
Income
 

NetFortris Corp. (A)

   $ 24,240        6.9   $ 1,566        4.0

IA Tech, LLC

     23,633        6.7       2,813        7.2  

HB Capital Resources, Ltd. (A)

     22,110        6.3       1,107        2.8  

WadeCo Specialties, Inc.

     22,016        6.2       1,936        4.9  

Lignetics, Inc.

     18,949        5.4       1,862        4.8  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Subtotal—five largest investments

     110,948        31.5       9,284        23.7  

Other portfolio companies

     241,425        68.5       29,922        76.3  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total Investment Portfolio

   $ 352,373        100.0   $ 39,206        100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 
     As of September 30, 2016     Year Ended September 30, 2016  

Portfolio Company

   Fair Value      % of Portfolio     Investment
Income
     % of Total
Investment
Income
 

RBC Acquisition Corp.

   $ 37,345        11.6   $ 3,347        8.6

IA Tech, LLC (A)

     23,230        7.2       888        2.3  

WadeCo Specialties, Inc.

     18,980        5.9       2,059        5.3  

United Flexible, Inc.

     17,744        5.5       2,108        5.4  

Lignetics, Inc.

     14,821        4.6       1,708        4.3  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Subtotal—five largest investments

     112,120        34.8       10,110        25.9  

Other portfolio companies

     209,994        65.2       28,997        74.1  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total Investment Portfolio

   $ 322,114        100.0   $ 39,107        100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(A)

New investment during applicable period.

Expenses

Expenses, net of credits from the Adviser, decreased by 9.3% for the year ended September 30, 2017 as compared to the prior year. This decrease was primarily due to decreases in our net base management and incentive fees to the Advisor.

Interest expense increased by 6.0% during the year ended September 30, 2017, as compared to the prior year, due to an increase in the LIBOR component of the effective interest rate partially offset by a lower weighted average balance outstanding. The effective interest rate on our Credit Facility, excluding the impact of deferred financing costs, was 5.3% during the year ended September 30, 2017 compared to 4.5% during the prior year period. The weighted average balance outstanding on our Credit Facility during the year ended September 30, 2017, was approximately $58.4 million, as compared to $64.0 million in the prior year period, a decrease of 8.8%.

Other expenses decreased by 20.9% during the year ended September 30, 2017, as compared to the prior year, primarily due to decreases in shareholder related costs and professional fees.

Net base management fee earned by the Adviser decreased by $0.8 million, or 17.4%, during the year ended September 30, 2017, as compared to the prior year period, resulting from an increase in portfolio company fee credits due to new investments made in the current year period.

Our Board of Directors accepted non-contractual, unconditional and irrevocable credits from the Adviser to reduce the income-based incentive fee to the extent net investment income did not cover 100.0% of our distributions to common stockholders during the years ended September 30, 2017 and 2016, which credits totaled $2.3 million and $1.4 million, respectively.

 

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The base management, loan servicing and incentive fees, and associated non-contractual, unconditional and irrevocable credits, are computed quarterly, as described under “Transactions with the Adviser” in Note 4— Related Party Transactions of the accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and are summarized in the following table:

 

     Year Ended September 30,  
     2017     2016  

Average total assets subject to base management fee (A)

   $ 330,343     $ 324,800  

Multiplied by annual base management fee of 1.75%

     1.75 %       1.75
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Base management fee (B)

     5,781       5,684  

Portfolio company fee credit

     (1,588     (785

Syndicated loan fee credit

     (221 )       (92
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Base Management Fee

   $ 3,972     $ 4,807  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Loan servicing fee (B)

   $ 4,146     $ 3,890  

Credit to base management fee – loan servicing fee (B)

     (4,146 )       (3,890
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Loan Servicing Fee

   $ —       $ —    
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Incentive fee (B)

   $ 4,779     $ 4,514  

Incentive fee credit

     (2,317 )       (1,429
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Incentive Fee

   $ 2,462     $ 3,085  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Portfolio company fee credit

   $ (1,588   $ (785

Syndicated loan fee credit

     (221     (92

Incentive fee credit

     (2,317 )       (1,429
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Credit to Fees from Adviser—Other (B)

   $ (4,126 )     $ (2,306
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

(A)

Average total assets subject to the base management fee is defined as total assets, including investments made with proceeds of borrowings, less any uninvested cash or cash equivalents resulting from borrowings, valued at the end of the four most recently completed quarters within the respective years and adjusted appropriately for any share issuances or repurchases during the applicable year.

(B)

Reflected, on a gross basis, as a line item on our accompanying Consolidated Statement of Operations located elsewhere in this prospectus.

Realized Loss and Unrealized Appreciation

Net Realized Loss on Investments

For the year ended September 30, 2017, we recorded a net realized loss on investments of $3.5 million, which resulted primarily from the sale of substantially all the assets of RBC for a $2.3 million realized loss and the write-off of $5.0 million on our investment in Sunshine, partially offset by the sale of Behrens for a $2.5 million realized gain and a $1.2 million realized gain related to an additional earn-out from Funko, LLC (“Funko”), which we exited in the prior year.

For the year ended September 30, 2016, we recorded a net realized gain on investments of $7.2 million, which resulted primarily from the sales of Funko, Southern Petroleum Laboratories, Inc. (“SPL”), Westland Technologies, Inc. (“Westland”), and Ashland Acquisitions, LLC (“Ashland”) for a combined realized gain of $18.7 million and net proceeds of $35.4 million. This realized gain was partially offset by a combined realized loss of $11.7 million recognized from the sale of Heartland Communications Group (“Heartland”) and the restructures of Targus Group International, Inc. (“Targus”) and Precision Acquisition Group Holdings, Inc. (“Precision”) during the year ended September 30, 2016. We also recognized a realized loss of $0.6 million during the year ended September 30, 2016 related to a settlement associated with WP Evenflo Group Holdings, Inc., which we previously exited at a realized gain of $1.0 million in September 2014.

Net Realized Loss on Other

We incurred a loss on extinguishment of debt of $1.3 million during the year ended September 30, 2017, which resulted from the write-off of unamortized deferred issuance costs at the time of redemption of our 6.75% Series 2021 Term Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share (“Series 2021 Preferred Stock”) in September 2017. During the year ended September 30, 2016, we recorded a net realized loss of $0.1 million due to the expiration of our interest rate cap agreement in January 2016.

 

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Net Unrealized Appreciation of Investments

During the year ended September 30, 2017, we recorded net unrealized appreciation of investments in the aggregate amount of $0.6 million. The net realized gain (loss) and unrealized appreciation (depreciation) across our investments for the year ended September 30, 2017, were as follows:

 

     Year Ended September 30, 2017  

Portfolio Company

   Realized Gain
(Loss)
     Unrealized
Appreciation
(Depreciation)
     Reversal of
Unrealized
Depreciation
(Appreciation)
     Net Gain
(Loss)
 

WadeCo Specialties, Inc.

   $ —        $ 2,900      $ —        $ 2,900  

SourceHOV LLC

     (218      1,756        97        1,635  

Funko, LLC

     1,273        (106      —          1,167  

Targus Cayman HoldCo, Ltd.

     —          662        —          662  

LWO Acquisitions Company, LLC

     —          608        —          608  

Flight Fit N Fun LLC

     —          456        —          456  

IA Tech, LLC

     —          403        —          403  

Vitera Healthcare Solutions, LLC

     —          213        115        328  

PIC 360, LLC

     —          315        —          315  

B+T Group Acquisition Inc.

     —          305        —          305  

Travel Sentry, Inc.

     —          255        —          255  

Leeds Novamark Capital I, L.P.

     —          229        —          229  

NetFortris Corp.

     (14      239        —          225  

PSC Industrial Holdings Corp.

     —          219        —          219  

United Flexible, Inc.

     —          177        —          177  

Drumcree, LLC

     —          169        (15      154  

Merlin International, Inc.

     —          150        —          150  

Vision Government Solutions, Inc.

     —          141        —          141  

TWS Acquisition Corporation

     —          127        —          127  

Westland Technologies, Inc.

     126        —          —          126  

Meridian Rack & Pinion, Inc.

     —          (246      —          (246

L Discovery

     —          (265      —          (265

Edge Adhesives Holdings, Inc.

     —          (468      —          (468

FedCap Partners, LLC

     —          (514      —          (514

Behrens Manufacturing, LLC

     2,544        —          (3,211      (667

New Trident Holdcorp, Inc.

     —          (878      —          (878

Defiance Integrated Technologies, Inc.

     —          (1,125      —          (1,125

RBC Acquisition Corp.

     (2,330      —          1,119        (1,211

Vertellus Holdings LLC

     109        (1,456      —          (1,347

Francis Drilling Fluids, Ltd.

     —          (2,066      —          (2,066

Alloy Die Casting, Corp.

     —          (2,303      —          (2,303

Sunshine Media Holdings

     (5,000      (995      3,612        (2,383

Other, net (<$250)

     35        33        (27      41  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total:

   $ (3,475    $ (1,065    $ 1,690      $ (2,850
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

The primary drivers of our net unrealized appreciation for the year ended September 30, 2017, were an increase in the value of WadeCo Specialties, Inc., increased performance on certain of our portfolio companies, and the reversal of previously recorded depreciation on our investment in Sunshine upon partial write-off. These factors were partially offset by a decline in performance and decrease in comparable multiples used in the valuation of certain of our other portfolio companies and the reversal of $3.2 million of previously recorded unrealized appreciation on our investment in Behrens upon exit.

 

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The net realized gain (loss) and unrealized appreciation (depreciation) across our investments for the year ended September 30, 2016, were as follows:

 

     Year Ended September 30, 2016  

Portfolio Company

   Realized (Loss)
Gain
    Unrealized
Appreciation
(Depreciation)
    Reversal of
Unrealized
Depreciation
(Appreciation)
    Net Gain
(Loss)
 

RBC Acquisition Corp.

   $ 1,207     $ 11,896     $ —       $ 13,103  

Legend Communications of Wyoming, LLC

     —         2,857       27       2,884  

Behrens Manufacturing, LLC

     —         2,206       —         2,206  

Funko, LLC

     16,874       98       (16,009     963  

Southern Petroleum Laboratories, Inc.

     873       871       (995     749  

Precision Acquisition Group Holdings, Inc.

     (3,821     (1,282     5,805       702  

Westland Technologies, Inc.

     909       622       (866     665  

J. America, Inc.

     —         482       —         482  

Triple H Food Processors

     —         351       —         351  

RP Crown Parent, LLC

     —         276       —         276  

GFRC Holdings, LLC

     —         (271     —         (271

Ashland Acquisitions, LLC

     72       183       (572     (317

Mikawaya

     —         (379     —         (379

FedCap Partners, LLC

     —         (381     —         (381

New Trident Holdcorp, Inc.

     —         (442     —         (442

AG Transportation Holdings, LLC

     —         (454     —         (454

WP Evenflo Group Holdings, Inc.

     (550     —         —         (550

WadeCo Specialties, Inc.

     —         (722     —         (722

Vision Government Solutions, Inc.

     —         (779     —         (779

Vertellus Specialties Inc.

     —         (975     —         (975

Lignetics, Inc.

     —         (1,251     —         (1,251

SourceHOV LLC

     —         (1,380     —         (1,380

LWO Acquisitions Company, LLC

     —         (3,170     —         (3,170

Defiance Integrated Technologies, Inc.

     —         (3,184     —         (3,184

Sunshine Media Holdings

     —         (3,360     —         (3,360

Targus Cayman HoldCo, Ltd.

     (5,500     (2,952     4,198       (4,254

Francis Drilling Fluids, Ltd.

     —         (8,156     —         (8,156

Other, net (<$250)

     (2,848     (528     2,902       (474
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

Total:

   $ 7,216     $ (9,824   $ (5,510   $ (8,118
  

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

   

 

 

 

The primary drivers of our net unrealized depreciation for the year ended September 30, 2016, were a decline in financial and operation performance of certain portfolio companies and the reversal of $16.0 million of previously recorded unrealized appreciation on our investment in Funko upon exit. This depreciation was partially offset by unrealized appreciation, primarily on RBC of $11.9 million, which was driven by proceeds received associated with the sale of RBC in November 2016, and the reversal of $4.2 million of previously recorded unrealized depreciation on our investment in Targus upon restructure.

As of September 30, 2017, the fair value of our investment portfolio was less than its cost basis by approximately $59.1 million and our entire investment portfolio was valued at 85.6% of cost, as compared to cumulative net unrealized depreciation of $59.7 million and a valuation of our entire portfolio at 84.4% of cost as of September 30, 2016. This year over year increase in the cumulative unrealized depreciation on investments represents net unrealized appreciation of $0.6 million for the year ended September 30, 2017.

The cumulative net unrealized depreciation of our investments does not have an impact on our current ability to pay distributions to stockholders; however, it may be an indication of future realized losses, which could ultimately reduce our income available for distribution to stockholders.

Net Unrealized (Appreciation) Depreciation of Other

During the year ended September 30, 2017, we recorded $0.1 million of unrealized depreciation on our Credit Facility at fair value. During the year ended September 30, 2016, we reversed $0.1 million of unrealized depreciation related to the expiration of our interest rate cap agreement in January 2016.

 

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Comparison of the Year Ended September 30, 2016 to the Year Ended September 30, 2015

 

     For the Year Ended September 30,  
     2016      2015      $ Change      % Change  

INVESTMENT INCOME

           

Interest income

   $ 35,219      $ 34,895      $ 324        0.9

Other income

     3,893        3,163        730        23.1  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total investment income

     39,112        38,058        1,054        2.8  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

EXPENSES

           

Base management fee

     5,684        6,888        (1,204      (17.5

Loan servicing fee

     3,890        3,816        74        1.9  

Incentive fee

     4,514        4,083        431        10.6  

Administration fee

     1,182        1,033        149        14.4  

Interest expense on borrowings

     2,899        3,828        (929      (24.3

Dividend expense on mandatorily redeemable preferred stock

     4,118        4,116        2        0.0  

Amortization of deferred financing fees

     1,075        1,106        (31      (2.8

Other expenses

     2,459        2,188        271        12.4  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Expenses, before credits from Adviser

     25,821        27,058        (1,237      (4.6

Credit to base management fee – loan servicing fee

     (3,890      (3,816      (74      1.9  

Credit to fees from Adviser - other

     (2,306 )        (2,884      578        (20.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total expenses, net of credits

     19,625        20,358        (733      (3.6
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

NET INVESTMENT INCOME

     19,487        17,700        1,787        10.1  
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

NET REALIZED AND UNREALIZED (LOSS) GAIN

           

Net realized gain (loss) on investments

     7,216        (33,666      40,882        (121.4

Net realized loss on other

     (64      (510      446        87.5  

Net unrealized (depreciation) appreciation of investments

     (15,334      23,647        (38,981      (164.8

Net unrealized appreciation of other

     62        1,313        (1,251      (95.3
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net loss from investments and other

     (8,120 )        (9,216      1,096        (11.9
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

NET INCREASE IN NET ASSETS RESULTING FROM OPERATIONS

   $ 11,367      $ 8,484      $ 2,883        34.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

PER BASIC AND DILUTED COMMON SHARE

           

Net investment income

   $ 0.84      $ 0.84      $ —         
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net increase in net assets resulting from operations

   $ 0.49      $ 0.40      $ 0.09        22.5
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Investment Income

Interest income increased by 0.9% for the year ended September 30, 2016, as compared to the prior year. This increase was due primarily to an increase in the weighted average yield on our interest-bearing portfolio partially offset by a slight decrease in the principal balance of our interest-bearing investment portfolio outstanding during the year. The weighted average yield on our interest-bearing investments is based on the current stated interest rate on interest-bearing investments which increased to 11.1% for the year ended September 30, 2016 compared to 10.9% for the year ended September 30, 2015, inclusive of any allowances on interest receivables made during those periods. The weighted average principal balance of our interest-bearing investment portfolio during the year ended September 30, 2016, was $317.0 million, compared to $319.1 million for the prior year, a decrease of $2.1 million, or 0.1%.

As of September 30, 2016, two portfolio companies, Sunshine and Vertellus Specialties, Inc., were either fully or partially on non-accrual status, with an aggregate debt cost basis of approximately $26.5 million, or 7.7% of the cost basis of all debt investments in our portfolio. As of September 30, 2015, two portfolio companies, Sunshine and Heartland, were either fully or partially on non-accrual status, with an aggregate debt cost basis of approximately $26.4 million, or 7.1% of the cost basis of all debt investments in our portfolio.

Other income increased by 23.1% during the year ended September 30, 2016, as compared to the prior year. For the year ended September 30, 2016, other income consisted primarily of $3.4 million in success fees recognized, $0.3 million in dividend income received, and $0.2 million in prepayment fees received. For the year ended September 30, 2015, other income consisted primarily of $1.9 million in success fees recognized, $0.9 million in dividend income, and $0.3 million in settlement fees.

 

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The following tables list the investment income for our five largest portfolio company investments at fair value during the respective years:

 

     As of September 30, 2016     Year Ended September 30, 2016  

Portfolio Company

   Fair Value      % of Portfolio     Investment
Income
     % of Total
Investment
Income
 

RBC Acquisition Corp.

   $ 37,345        11.6   $ 3,347        8.6

IA Tech, LLC (A)

     23,230        7.2       888        2.3  

WadeCo Specialties, Inc.

     18,980        5.9       2,059        5.3  

United Flexible, Inc.

     17,744        5.5       2,108        5.4  

Lignetics, Inc.

     14,821        4.6       1,708        4.3  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Subtotal—five largest investments

     112,120        34.8       10,110        25.9  

Other portfolio companies

     209,994        65.2       28,997        74.1  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total Investment Portfolio

   $ 322,114        100.0   $ 39,107        100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 
     As of September 30, 2015     Year Ended September 30, 2015  

Portfolio Company

   Fair Value      % of Portfolio     Investment
Income
     % of Total
Investment
Income
 

Funko, LLC

   $ 26,814        7.3   $ 1,385        3.6

WadeCo Specialties, Inc.

     21,920        6.0       1,896        5.0  

RBC Acquisition Corp.

     20,617        5.6       2,343        6.2  

United Flexible, Inc. (A)

     20,355        5.6       1,226        3.2  

Francis Drilling Fluids, Ltd.

     19,928        5.5       2,946        7.7  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Subtotal—five largest investments

     109,634        30.0       9,796        25.7  

Other portfolio companies

     256,257        70.0       28,257        74.3  
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total Investment Portfolio

   $ 365,891        100.0   $ 38,053        100.0
  

 

 

    

 

 

   

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(A)

New investment during applicable period.

Expenses

Expenses, net of credits from the Adviser, decreased for the year ended September 30, 2016, by 3.6% as compared to the prior year. This decrease was primarily due to decreases in our net base management fees to the Advisor and interest expense on borrowings, partially offset by an increase in the net incentive fee to the Adviser.

Interest expense decreased by $0.9 million, or 24.3%, during the year ended September 30, 2016, as compared to the prior year, primarily due to decreased borrowings outstanding throughout the period on our Credit Facility. The weighted average balance outstanding on our Credit Facility during the year ended September 30, 2016, was approximately $64.0 million, as compared to $92.5 million in the prior year period, a decrease of 30.8%.

Net base management fee earned by the Adviser decreased by $0.6 million, or 10.5%, during the year ended September 30, 2016, as compared to the prior year period, resulting from a decrease in the average total assets outstanding and a decrease in the annual base management fee from 2.0% to 1.75%, which was effective July 1, 2015.

The base management, loan servicing and incentive fees, and associated non-contractual, unconditional and irrevocable credits, are computed quarterly, as described under “Transactions with the Adviser” in Note 4— Related Party Transactions of the accompanying Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements and are summarized in the following table:

 

     Year Ended September 30,  
     2016     2015  

Average total assets subject to base management fee (A)

   $ 324,800     $ 355,510  

Multiplied by annual base management fee of 1.75%—2.0%

     1.75 %       1.75% - 2.0
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Base management fee (B)

     5,684       6,888  

Portfolio fee credit

     (785     (1,399

Syndicated loan fee credit

     (92 )       (118
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

Net Base Management Fee

   $ 4,807     $ 5,371  
  

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

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     Year Ended September 30,  
     2016      2015  

Loan servicing fee (B)

   $ 3,890      $ 3,816  

Credit to base management fee – loan servicing fee (B)

     (3,890 )        (3,816
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net Loan Servicing Fee

   $ —        $ —    
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Incentive fee (B)

   $ 4,514      $ 4,083  

Incentive fee credit

     (1,429 )        (1,367
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Net Incentive Fee

   $ 3,085      $ 2,716  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Portfolio fee credit

   $ (785    $ (1,399

Syndicated loan fee credit

     (92      (118

Incentive fee credit

     (1,429 )        (1,367
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Credit to Fees from Adviser - Other (B)

   $ (2,306 )      $ (2,884
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(A)  

Average total assets subject to the base management fee is defined as total assets, including investments made with proceeds of borrowings, less any uninvested cash or cash equivalents resulting from borrowings, valued at the end of the four most recently completed quarters within the respective years and adjusted appropriately for any share issuances or repurchases during the applicable year.

(B)  

Reflected, on a gross basis, as a line item on our accompanying Consolidated Statement of Operations located elsewhere in this prospectus.

Realized Loss and Unrealized Appreciation

Net Realized Loss on Investments

For the year ended September 30, 2016, we recorded a net realized gain on investments of $7.2 million, which resulted primarily from the sales of Funko, SPL, Westland, and Ashland for a combined realized gain of $18.7 million and net proceeds of $35.4 million. This realized gain was partially offset by a combined realized loss of $11.7 million recognized from the sale of Heartland and the restructures of Targus and Precision during the year ended September 30, 2016. We also recognized a realized loss of $0.6 million during the year ended September 30, 2016 related to a settlement associated with WP Evenflo Group Holdings, Inc., which we had previously exited at a realized gain of $1.0 million in September 2014.

For the year ended September 30, 2015, we recorded a net realized loss on investments of $34.2 million, which resulted primarily from the sales of Midwest Metal Distribution, Inc. (“Midwest Metal”), Sunburst Media – Louisiana LLC (“Sunburst”), Saunders & Associates (“Saunders”) and the restructure of GFRC Holdings LLC (“GFRC”) for a combined realized loss of $34.1 million and net proceeds of $7.1 million. This realized loss was partially offset by the realized gain of $1.6 million we recognized on the early payoff of North American Aircraft Services, LLC (“NAAS”).

Net Realized Loss on Other

During the year ended September 30, 2016, we recorded a net realized loss of $0.1 million due to the expiration of our interest rate cap agreement in January 2016. For the year ended September 30, 2015, we recorded a net realized loss on other of $0.5 million resulting primarily from uncollected escrows on the previous sale of Midwest Metal during the three months ended December 31, 2014.

 

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Net Unrealized (Depreciation) Appreciation of Investments

During the year ended September 30, 2016, we recorded net unrealized depreciation of investments in the aggregate amount of $15.3 million. The net realized gain (loss) and unrealized appreciation (depreciation) across our investments for the year ended September 30, 2016, were as follows:

 

     Year Ended September 30, 2016  

Portfolio Company

   Realized (Loss)
Gain
     Unrealized
Appreciation
(Depreciation)
     Reversal of
Unrealized
Depreciation
(Appreciation)
     Net Gain
(Loss)
 

RBC Acquisition Corp.

   $ 1,207      $ 11,896      $ —        $ 13,103  

Legend Communications of Wyoming, LLC

     —          2,857        27        2,884  

Behrens Manufacturing, LLC

     —          2,206        —          2,206  

Funko, LLC

     16,874        98        (16,009      963  

Southern Petroleum Laboratories, Inc.

     873        871        (995      749  

Precision Acquisition Group Holdings, Inc.

     (3,821      (1,282      5,805        702  

Westland Technologies, Inc.

     909        622        (866      665  

J. America, Inc.

     —          482        —          482  

Triple H Food Processors

     —          351        —          351  

RP Crown Parent, LLC

     —          276        —          276  

GFRC Holdings, LLC

     —          (271      —          (271

Ashland Acquisitions, LLC

     72        183        (572      (317

Mikawaya

     —          (379      —          (379

FedCap Partners, LLC

     —          (381      —          (381

New Trident Holdcorp, Inc.

     —          (442      —          (442

AG Transportation Holdings, LLC

     —          (454      —          (454

WP Evenflo Group Holdings, Inc.

     (550      —          —          (550

WadeCo Specialties, Inc.

     —          (722      —          (722

Vision Government Solutions, Inc.

     —          (779      —          (779

Vertellus Specialties Inc.

     —          (975      —          (975

Lignetics, Inc.

     —          (1,251      —          (1,251

SourceHOV LLC

     —          (1,380      —          (1,380

LWO Acquisitions Company, LLC

     —          (3,170      —          (3,170

Defiance Integrated Technologies, Inc.

     —          (3,184      —          (3,184

Sunshine Media Holdings

     —          (3,360      —          (3,360

Targus Cayman HoldCo, Ltd.

     (5,500      (2,952      4,198        (4,254

Francis Drilling Fluids, Ltd.

     —          (8,156      —          (8,156

Other, net (<$250)

     (2,848      (528      2,902        (474
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total:

   $ 7,216      $ (9,824    $ (5,510    $ (8,118
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

The primary drivers of our net unrealized depreciation for the year ended September 30, 2016, were a decline in financial and operational performance of certain portfolio companies and the reversal of $16.0 million of previously recorded unrealized appreciation on our investment in Funko upon exit. This depreciation was partially offset by unrealized appreciation, primarily on RBC of $11.9 million, which was driven by proceeds received associated with the sale of RBC in November 2016, and the reversal of $4.2 million of previously recorded unrealized depreciation on our investment in Targus upon restructure.

 

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During the year ended September 30, 2015, we recorded net unrealized appreciation of investments in the aggregate amount of $23.6 million. The net realized gain (loss) and unrealized appreciation (depreciation) across our investments for the year ended September 30, 2015, were as follows:

 

     Year Ended September 30, 2015  

Portfolio Company

   Realized (Loss)
Gain
     Unrealized
Appreciation
(Depreciation)
     Reversal of
Unrealized
Depreciation
(Appreciation)
     Net Gain
(Loss)
 

Funko, LLC

   $ —        $ 11,451      $ —        $ 11,451  

Sunburst Media – Louisiana, LLC

     (1,333      2,130        2,295        3,092  

Precision Acquisition Group Holdings, Inc.

     —          2,831        —          2,831  

Sunshine Media Holdings

     —          1,861        —          1,861  

Heartland Communications Group

     —          1,123        —          1,123  

Behrens Manufacturing, LLC

     —          1,102        —          1,102  

Ameriqual Group, LLC

     —          1,063        —          1,063  

Westland Technologies, Inc.

     —          899        —          899  

Midwest Metal Distribution, Inc.

     (14,980      —          15,578        598  

Ashland Acquisitions, LLC

     —          571        —          571  

AG Transportation Holdings, LLC

     —          516        —          516  

New Trident Holdcorp, Inc.

     —          (282      —          (282

Vertellus Specialties Inc.

     —          (315      —          (315

LWO Acquisitions Company, LLC

     —          (390      —          (390

SourceHOV LLC

     —          (473      —          (473

FedCap Partners, LLC

     —          (507      —          (507

North American Aircraft Services, LLC

     1,578        —          (2,216      (638

WadeCo Specialties, Inc.

     —          (818      —          (818

Alloy Die Casting

     —          (1,251      —          (1,251

Targus Group International, Inc.

     —          (1,254      —          (1,254

Meridian Rack & Pinion, Inc.

     —          (1,647      —          (1,647

B+T Group Acquisition Inc.

     —          (1,934      —          (1,934

Francis Drilling Fluids, Ltd.

     —          (2,575      —          (2,575

PLATO Learning, Inc.

     —          (2,663      —          (2,663

Edge Adhesives Holdings, Inc.

     —          (3,196      6        (3,190

Saunders & Associates

     (8,884      (3,255      8,680        (3,459

GFRC Holdings, LLC

     (10,797      (5,308      10,483        (5,622

RBC Acquisition Corp.

     —          (7,647      —          (7,647

Other, net (<$250)

     750        (985      (226      (461
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

Total:

   $ (33,666    $ (10,953    $ 34,600      $ (10,019
  

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

    

 

 

 

The largest driver of our net unrealized appreciation for the year ended September 30, 2015 was the reversal of an aggregate of $34.6 million in cumulative unrealized depreciation primarily related to the sales of Midwest Metal, Sunburst, Saunders, and the restructure of GFRC. Net unrealized appreciation was also driven by an increase in performance on Funko of $11.5 million. This appreciation was offset by decreases in comparable multiples used in valuations and a decline in the financial and operational performance of GFRC and RBC.

As of September 30, 2016, the fair value of our investment portfolio was less than its cost basis by approximately $59.7 million and our entire investment portfolio was valued at 84.4% of cost, as compared to cumulative net unrealized depreciation of $44.4 million and a valuation of our entire portfolio at 89.2% of cost as of September 30, 2015. This year over year increase in the cumulative unrealized depreciation on investments represents net unrealized depreciation of $15.3 million for the year ended September 30, 2016.

The cumulative net unrealized depreciation of our investments does not have an impact on our current ability to pay distributions to stockholders; however, it may be an indication of future realized losses, which could ultimately reduce our income available for distribution to stockholders.

Net Unrealized (Appreciation) Depreciation of Other

During the year ended September 30, 2016, we reversed $0.1 million of unrealized depreciation related to the expiration of our interest rate cap agreement in January 2016. During year ended September 30, 2015, we recorded $1.3 million of net unrealized depreciation on our Credit Facility recorded at fair value whereas no such amounts were incurred during the year ended September 30, 2016.

 

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LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES

Operating Activities

Our cash flows from operating activities are primarily generated from the interest payments on debt securities that we receive from our portfolio companies, as well as net proceeds received through repayments or sales of our investments. We utilize this cash primarily to fund new investments, make interest payments on our Credit Facility, make distributions to our stockholders, pay management and administrative fees to the Adviser and Administrator, and for other operating expenses. Net cash used in operating activities for the year ended September 30, 2017 was $12.9 million as compared to net cash provided by operating activities of $60.0 million for the year ended September 30, 2016. The change was primarily due to an increase in purchases of investments and a decrease in principal repayments on investments and net proceeds from sale of investments period over period. Purchases of investments were $112.1 million during the year ended September 30, 2017 compared to $80.0 million during the prior year period. Repayments and net proceeds from sales were $83.4 million during the year ended September 30, 2017 compared to $121.1 million during the prior year period.

As of September 30, 2017, we had loans to, syndicated participations in or equity investments in 47 private companies, with an aggregate cost basis of approximately $411.4 million. As of September 30, 2016, we had loans to, syndicated participations in or equity investments in 45 private companies, with an aggregate cost basis of approximately $381.8 million.

The following table summarizes our total portfolio investment activity during the years ended September 30, 2017 and 2016:

 

     Year Ended September 30,  
     2017      2016  

Beginning investment portfolio, at fair value

   $ 322,114      $ 365,891  

New investments

     99,241        79,401  

Disbursements to existing portfolio companies

     12,851        10,145  

Scheduled principal repayments

     (3,646      (1,934

Unscheduled principal repayments

     (71,558      (107,293

Net proceeds from sales of investments

     (8,240      (21,438

Net unrealized depreciation of investments

     (1,065      (9,824

Reversal of prior period net depreciation (appreciation) of investments

     1,690        (5,510

Net realized (loss) gain on investments

     (3,475      7,216  

Increase in investment balance due to PIK interest (A)

     4,729        5,002  

Cost adjustments on non-accrual loans

     —          388  

Net change in premiums, discounts and amortization

     (268      70  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

Ending Investment Portfolio, at Fair Value

   $ 352,373      $ 322,114  
  

 

 

    

 

 

 

 

(A)  

PIK interest is a non-cash source of income and is calculated at the contractual rate stated in a loan agreement and added to the principal balance of a loan.

The following table summarizes the contractual principal repayment and maturity of our investment portfolio by fiscal year, assuming no voluntary prepayments, at September 30, 2017.

 

Year Ending September 30,

   Amount  (A)  

2018

   $ 43,413  

2019

     51,545  

2020

     87,823 &